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\_nZn\w

atäXp cwKhpw t


Gjym hIcbpsS sX¡p]Snªmdv ØnXnsN¿p hnkvXrX `qJÞamWv Atd_y. 30,07,305 N.In.ao. hnkvXoÀw IW¡m¡sSpp. BZv, kaqZv, PpÀ lqw FnhÀ ChnSps ]ucmWnI tKm{Xfmbncpp. H\h[n Imew ap pÅ Ncn{Xw Gsd¡psd hnizk\obamb hn[n Atd_y¡mbn FgpXsnpv. AÚm\Imew Fp hntijnn¡s Imes cN\IÄ, Ad_nIÄ a\x]mTam¡nh \mtSmSn¡YIÄ, sFXnlyÄ, lntdmtUmkv, o\n Fo bqtdm]ymcpsS cN\IÄ, ]mÝmXy kmcnIfpsS hnhcWÄ XpSnb \nch[n Ncn{X t{kmXÊpIÄ Atd_ysb ]cnNbsSppXmbnpv.

hyhkmb hmWnPy cwKfnepw ImemhØ¡\ptbmPyamb PohnX hyhlmcÄ cq]sSppXnepw [otcmZmamb PohnXw \bn¡pXnepw Ad _nIÄ {]knn t\SnbhcmWv. Fm Cu IgnhpIfpw AXns {]XypÂfpw Hpahsc kwkvImc kcm¡m aXnbmbXmbncpnÃ.

kmlnXys aZyns aZmekbptSbpw, kvXpXKoXsf tKm{XtmÀ\nefnse h{Pmbp[fpam¡n amäpIbmbncpp AhÀ. [ocX sImhÀ¡v Hpw t\Sm\mbnÃ. tKm{XÄ XnepmbnpÅ \ncc kwL\fÃmsX. hmfns NneenÃm, tNmcbpsS NoäenÃm kwL\fpsS BÀphnfnIfnÃm ZnhkÄ hncensem t]mepw CÃmbncpp.

sImÅbpw sImÅnshpw \nÀ_m[w \SamSnbXpaqew sskzcPohnXw Hcp ]m gv¡n\mhp am{Xambncpp. sXÃv A`nam\tmsSbmbncpp AhcnsXms¡ sNbvXncpXv. kmlnXycwKw DpwKtkm]m\nembncpnÃ. ]t, kmlnXyn\v am\hnIXbpsS Nphbpmbncpp. Acm`ymkapÅhcpsS Fw shdpw ]Xnt\gpam{Xw.

Cu IqmÄ¡nSbnepw AhÀ¡v ssZh{]XnjvTIfpsS Imcyn ]ªapmbncpnÃ. Ckvemans BhnÀ`mh Imev apqän Adp]Xv {]XnjvTIÄ GIssZhs Bcm[n¡m\mbn temImZyw ]WnX IAv_¡Iv X sbpmbncpp. _ÂJmC \nv Awdp_v epAbv FbmfmWv IAv _bnte¡v BZyw hn{Klw sImphsXv ]dbsSpp.

amÀKZÀiI

CkvamCu \_nbpsS hntbmKn\p tijw GItZiw cmbncn Aªqdne[nIw kwhÕcÄ¡p tijamWv aplZv \_n(kz) P\n¡pXv. Fncpmepw temIv GIssZh hnizmkns shfnw AWªpt]mbnnÃmbncpp. \_nbpsS P\\thfbn Xs hdJXv_n \u^ens\ t]mepÅ GIssZh hnizmknIÄ a¡bnepmbncpp. ]t, \_nbpsS P\\n\p sXmpapmWv AhÀ¡v HtcIoIrX kwLSnX cq]apmbncpXv. "lp\^mDIÄ' F t]cn AhÀ Ncn{XnednbsSpp.

F.Un. Aªqän Fgp]smv G{]n Ccp]nsbmn\mWv temIns amÀKZÀiI aplZv apkvX^m(kz) P\nXv. A\mY\mbncpp P\n¡ptmÄ. Acm`ymkanÃmsX IhSnteÀspw aäp kmaqly {]hÀ\Ä \Snbpw \_n hfÀp. Atd_ybpsS ZpchØtbmÀv B a\Êv Iepjambn. B XncpIcÄ lndmKplbpsS AÔImcn Hcp shfnn\mbn \onnSnp. B a\Ên Iocn IpXnÀ {]mÀY\ma{Ä apgn.

Hcp \mÄ AÃmlphns ZqX Pn_vcoÂ(A) {]Xysp. {]hmNIXzw \ÂIn A\p{Klnp. AXphgn a\pjycmin apgph A\p{KloXcmbn. kXyns i_vZw apgn. XuloZns [ocKmY aptmp \om XpSn. {]tem`\, {]tIm]\fn hiwhZ\mImsX {]hmNI\pw B ImÂ]mSpIfn ]mZaaÀn A\pNchrhpw kXyamÀn kackÖcmbn. Fn\pw Hcp¡apÅ A\pbmbnIsf hmÀsSpp. AhÀ ]ÀÆXsftmse XuloZn\v IcptIn. Fm XuloZns Ahkm\s \mfhpw XpSp\o¡m JpssdinIÄ FXnÀns sImSpmägnphnp. Ahkm\s apkvenans\ Xp Sp \o¡m i{Xp¡Ä ZrV{]XnÚsbSptXmsS Poh\pÅ aXs c n¡m ssZhIÂ\bpmbn. lnPvd Bcw`np. {]hmNIs\bpw A\pNcmtcbpw Imncn¡p hensbmcp P\Xbpv bkvcn_nÂ. Atmmbncpp ]emb\w. Ahkm\s A\pbmbntbbpw ISnhnSm {]hmNI Atbäw bXv\np.

km[yambhscms¡ t]mbnoÀtmÄ {]hmNI\pw ]pdsp. {]hmNI\pw A\pNcmÀ¡pw aZo\bn cmtPmNnX hcthÂv. AhÀ \_n(kz)tbmSpÅ _lpam\mÀYw bkvcn_n\v aZo\p_n (\_nbpsS \Kcw) Fv ]p\À\maIcWw sNbvXp.

Hcp cmjv{S\nÀmWw

kzmX{yntbpw \nÀ`bXzntbpw cmjv{Sambncpp aZo\. kmtlmZcyns AXpeyamb A\p`qXn e`n ambncpp AXv. \qämpIÄ \o tKm{XhÀ kwL\Ä¡v s\Sp\mbIXzw hlnp. ]pIbqXn \n¡p cv tKm{Xsf (Hukv, JkvdPv) {]hmNI Hnnp. a¡bn \nv \mSpw hoSpw hnv h kzlm_nIÄ¡v aZo\¡mÀ FÃm klmbhpw sNbvXp. kz pw kmZyhpw `mcyamsc t]mepw ]ckv]cw ]Ipv sImSpv kzoIcnp. hnizmknIÄ ktlmZcfmbn, aZo\bpsS kpJmcon Hcp ]dpZok ]WnXp. aZo\bnse blqZnIÄ, apivcn¡pIÄ Fnhcpambn {]hmNI DSSn sNbvXp. am\pjy Ncn{Xnse BZy enJnX `cWLS\ AhnsS FgpXsp. aZo\bnse dnn¡n kzbw \nÀWbmhImiapÅ {]PIfmbncpp b lqZnIfpw apivcn¡pIfpw. Ckveman\pw {]hmNI\pw aZo\ `cn¡m\pÅ AhImiw ssIhp. Fm FÃmhÀ¡pw Ahcmcmbmepw kam[m\tmsS Po hn¡pIbpw sN¿mw.

aZo\s¡Xnsc \nch[n XhW It¿äfpmbn. apkvenwIÄ¡v sskzcw X cm i{Xp¡Ä Xocpam\nnnsÃv Cu \o¡fn \nv t_m[yambncpp. AhÀ¡v XncnSnbneqsS KpW]mTw \ÂtIn hp.

Bkq{XnXamb \o¡fpw \bss\]pWyhpw BßmÀYXbpw a\pjykvt\l hpw Zbbpw ssZh`nbpw sImv Hcp henb P\X {]hmNIs t\XrXzawKoIcnp. IdIfª XuloZns AacXzw AhÀ PohnXw sImv kXnp.

Pmlnen¿ns apgp k{ZmbÄ¡psaXnsc AkaXzns A{IaÄ s¡Xnsc kmnI NqjWns\Xnsc a\pjymhImi [zwk\ns\Xnsc amÀK{`wins\Xnsc Hcp almhnhw Pbn¡pIbmbncpp. Ccp]naqv kwhÕcÄ sImv Hcp almPohnXw {]hmNI Pohnp ImWnpXp. ]dªp sImSppw A[nIhpw sNbvXp ImWnpw AhnSpv ]Tnnp. B Po hnXn \nv Hcp \nanjhpw ]pdwXncnªp \nÂt¡ kmlNcyw Ckvem anI kaqln\nÃ. A{Xbpw DZmw.

Ncn{Xw \_n(kz)bpsS hntbmKw tcJsSpn. AhnSpv CltemIhmkw shSnªp. B kabv Atd_y D]`qJÞw Ckvemans A[o\Xbnembncpp. temIw \Spn. Ncn{Xw Iocn IpXnÀp.

Dcm[nImcnIfpsS Imew

\_n(kz) CltemIhmkw shSnbptmÄ ]nKmansb Xocpam\nncpnÃ. B AhImiw P\Ä¡v sImSp¡pIbmbncpp. CkvemanI cmjv{Sns Xeh Bcmbncn¡Wsav apkvenwIÄ Xocpam\np. A_q_IvÀ kznoJv(d) {] hmNIcpsS Bßkplrpw BWpfn BZyw Ckvemw ]pÂInbhcpw kznoJv F A]c\man\Àl\mIpw hn[w \_n(kz)sb ]npSÀhcpambncpp. A_q_IvÀ kznoJv F [\mVy Xs kv apgph Ckvem an\v sImSpp.

`cWns \nb{Ww XuloZn\pw Xncpkpn\pw A[njvTnXambn At lw P\Ä¡v sImSpp. Xm EPpamÀn Ddp\n¡p Imetm fw am{Xsa Rm \nfpsS `cWm[nImcnbmhppÅq. As\bÃm ] w Fs \nÄ t\Àhgn ]Tnn¡Wsav AhnSpv P\tfmSv ]dªp.

kImv \ntj[nIÄ, hymP{]hmNImÀ ChÀ CkvemanI kaqln Ipgn\v {ian ImeLambncpp AXv. CubSpp am{Xw Ckvemante¡v ISphhÀ¡nSbn On{ZXbpm¡pw hn[w ImcyÄ Ipgªpadnbm A _q_IvÀ(d) A\phZnncpnÃ. A¡qn tdma, t]Àjy km{amPyÄ DbÀnhn `ojWnbpw Hcp {]XnkÔnbmbncpp. Chsbms¡ X{]qÀÆw A_q_IvÀ(d) t\cnp. Cu km{amPyfn \nv Ckvemans i_vZapbcm `cWIqSÄ A\phZnnÃ. P\XbpsS hnizmks NqjWw sNbvXp AhcpsS at\makvXnjvIsf Nebn Ipcp¡nbnv NnmkzmX{yw \ntj[n¡sncn¡pIbmbncpp AhnsS. JmenZv_n heoZns t\XrXznepÅ CkvemanI ssk\yw Cu cmPyfn Ibdnsp. AhnSfn Ckvemans shns¡mSn ]mdnp. B`yc Iem]Ä ASnaÀpIbpw CkvemanI kaqln\v XnIª Bßhnizmkw \ÂIpIbpw sNbvXpshXmWv A_q_IvÀ(d)s {][m\ `cWt\Ä. Iqn hnip JpÀB t{ImUoIcWw AXnalmb kw`mh\bmWv. acn¡pXn\papv Xs Dadn(d)s\ J eo^bm¡n hkzn¿v sNbvXp. P\Ä GIIWvTambn AXwKoIcn¡pIbmbncpp.

DaÀ(d)

A_q_IvÀ(d)s\tmse {]KÛ\mb kzlm_nbmWv l{kv Dadp ^mdqJv(d). {]hmNIcpsS cmw Dcm[nImcnbmbncpp Dadp ^mdqJv(d). t]À jy¡mcpw tdmam¡mcpambpÅ kwL\w DaÀ(d)s `cWn in {]m]np. apXn\mbncw hcp apkvenw ]SbmfnIÄ Adp]Xn\mbnctmfw hcp t]Àjy ssk\ytmSv kAvZp_v A_ohJvJmkzns t\XrXzn Gäpapn. CtXkabw bÀaq¡n JmenZv_n heoZns t\XrXzn \mÂXn\mbnctmfw apkvenwIÄ Hcp enÂcw tdmam¡msc s]mcpXn ]cmPbsSpn. t]Àjy km{amPyw Ncn{Xns `mKamhpIbpw tdma km{amPyns X{{][m\ ØeÄ ]nSnS¡pIbpw sNbvXp. t]ÀjybpsS XeØm\amb aZmC\ns\ eyam¡n kAvZp_v A_ohJvJmkzpw ssk\yhpw \Snb bpw FSpp ]dbmhXmWv. ssS{Kokns Ingt¡ Icbn B[p\nI _KvZmZns Øm\mbncpp aZmC DmbncpXv. ssS{Kokv ISm Wv aZmC\nsetXv. \mhnItk\ CÃm apkvenw ssk\yw ISÂoc p \nv ssZhoI \maapÑcnv ssS{KokneqsS IpXncsb ]mbnp. t]Àjy¡mÀ `bNInXcmbn HmSpIbmbncpp. ]t, AhÀ ASnbncpnÃ. HSp¡w \lmhns t]mÀ\nefn \nv t]Àjy ssk\ys apkvenwIÄ aeÀ nbSnp. Cu hnPbn AXymËmZw ]mSnsÃv DaÀ(d) ]dªp. "{]hmNIs ImÂ]mSpIÄ ]npScpI. \nÄ Zpjn¡mXncpm \nÄ¡p \ÃXv.'

ss_Xp aJvZnkns tamN\w

DaÀ(d)s `cWImev \S {][m\ kw`hhnImkfnsemmWnXv. tdm a km{amPyns `mKamb kndnbbnembncpp ss_Xp aJvZnkv. ss{Ikv Xhcmbncpp AXns ]cn]meIÀ. bÀaq¡n JmenZv_n heoZns t\XrXznepÅ ssk\yw tdma ssk\ys tamNnntmÄ Xs `cWm[nImcnbmb lnÀJ XeØm\w kndnbbn \nv tImÌmnt\mnfnte¡v am änbncpp.

apkvenwIÄ ss_Xp aJvZnkv D]tcm[ntmÄ ss{IkvXhÀ kÔn¡v X¿mdmbn. DaÀ(d) t\cnv hp kÔntcJ X¿mdm¡Wsambncpp AhcpsS B hiyw. hnhcadnªtmÄ Aen(d)sb {]Xn\n[nbm¡n DaÀ(d) kndnbbn hp. ss{IkvXhcpsS [\hpw A`nam\hpw apkvenw `cWn ]qÀkpcnXambncn¡psav IcmsdgpXn HpshpsImSpp.

]t, CuPn]vXn \npw CkvemanI Jnem^ns\Xnsc tdma¡mÀ ]pXnb AkzØXIÄ krjvSnp. Awdp_v\p Bkzns\ CuPn]vXv tamNnn¡m D aÀ(d) NpaXesSpn. cp hÀjw sImv CuPn]vXv Ckvemans hcpXnbn hp. _ÀJ, en_nb Fnhbpw apkvenw ssk\yw IogS¡n.

Dkvam(d)

kzÀKw sImv ktmjhmÀ Adnbn¡shcmbncpp Dkvam(d). \_nbpsS cp s]a¡sf hnhmlw sNbvXp "Zpqssd\n' F A]cm`n[m\nednbsp. DaÀ(d) \ntbmKn Hcp {]tXyI kanXn P\fn \nv A`n{]mbamcmªmWv Dkvam(d)s\ Jeo^bmbn XncsªSpXv. aqmw Jeo^bmbn `cWtasäSp¡ptmÄ {]mbw Fgp]Xv hbÊv. 12 hÀjw `cWw \Sn. Ing¡v Kkv\nbpw Im_qfpw hscbpÅ {]tZifpw ]Snªmdv SpWojy bpw CkvemanI Jnem^ns `mKambn. CkvemanI Jnem^ns Iogn Hcp {]_eamb \mhnItk\ cq]oIrXambXv Dkvam(d)s {][m\ kw`mh\IfnsemmWv.

Aen(d)

\_nbpsS PmamXmhv. CkvemanI aptäfn t\Xr]camb ]phlnp. ] mw hbÊn Xs XuloZns XWen hp. hnÚm\n AenbpsS ss\]pWyw {]hmNI FSpp ]dªncpp. Dkvam(d)s\ AÚmXÀ sImesSpnbtmgmWv Aen(d) Jeo^bmIpXv. Dkvams LmXIs\ Ism Ignbm IgnhpsIh Fv ]ecpw Atls A[nt]nncpp. CkvemanI Jnem^ns\ On`nam¡m\pÅ h{Pmbp[ambn A hÀ Cu {]iv\s D]tbmKsSpn. Dkvam(d)s LmXIsc Ip]nSn¡m\pÅ ImeXmakw FpsImmsWv A¡mcyn hntbmPnv tcJsSpnb BCix(d), XzÂlx(d) Fo {]apJ kzlm_nIsf Aen(d) t_m[ysSpnbncpp. ]t, Ipg¡mÀ FÃm A\pcRvP\ {iatfbpw Anadnp. AhÀ¡v Ckvemans, kaqlns PohÑhambncpp thnbncpXv. apkvenwIsf XneSnn¡m, DaÀ(d) apsmcn¡Â apdnbnv \ÂInb, B`ycinIÄ InWªp {ianp. AXn\m Cu Ln Jeo^¡v a sämcp Imcyhpw {in¡m IgnªncpnÃ. BCix(d)bpw Aen(d)bpw Xnepm¡nb A\pcRvP\w Cu On{ZinIÄ XpScm A\phZnnÃ. Aen    (d)bpw apBhnbx(d)hpw Cu hnjbn CSªp. Hcp Gäpapepmbn. ]ckv]cw ]ncnbpwappXs JpÀBs ASnØm\n HpXoÀpmbn. CtXpSÀv a\pjycpsS a[yØw Ip^vdmsWp ]dªv JhmcnPpIÄ cwKsn. AhÀ Aen(d), apBhnbx(d), {]iv\n a[yØ\mb Awdp_v Bkzv(d) Fnhsc h[n¡m\mbn Dgdn \Sp. HSphn AhÀ Aen(d)sb sImesSpn. AenbpsS acWtijw Iq^¡mÀ aI lk(d)s\ \nÀ_Ônv `cWtaÂnp. kndnbbnse KhÀWdmbncp apBhnbx(d)v CXv ZlnnÃ. C¡mcyw AdnªtmÄ C\nsbmcp Ipgn\p \n¡msX lk(d) Øm\XymKw sNbvXp. CXmWv BapÂPamA (kwLSnXhÀjw).

CtXmsS Jnem^pÀdminZx Ahkm\n¡pIbmbn. cmjv{Sn kwhn[m\w, kmaqlnI \hoIcWw, \bX{w Fo hninjvS aqeyfn Jnem^pÀdminZx temINcn{Xn anIp\n¡pp. Hcp henb temIs DÄs¡mÅm\pw A[nImc hntI{oIcWtmsSbpw P\Iob klIcWtmsSbpw BßmÀ YXtbmsSbpw Hcp ]pXnb `cW kwkvImcw krjvSn¡m IgnªXv Jnem^ pÀdminZxbpsS kw`mh\Ifn anIXmWv.

apeq¡n¿v

Jnem^pÀdminZx¡p tijw XncsªSp¡s `cWIqSasÃnepw apBhnbx(d) Bbncpp `cWm[nImcn. CdmJv hntamNI\mb kAvZp_v\p A_ohJvJmkzv(d) Hcn¡Â apBhnbx(d)sb ItmÄ "AÊemap Asse¡ A¿plÂaenIv'(Hm cmPmth At¡v AÃmlphns kpc Dmhs.) FmW s{X A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXXv. AtX, CkvemanINcn{Xw C\n cmPm[n]XyntXmWv. apeqIn¿mWv, Jnem^Ã.

Ccp]XpsImÃambncpp apBhnbx(d)bpsS `cWImew. cmPyv {Iakam[m\n\v ]db¡ `wKsampapmbnÃ. Dcm{^n¡ CkvemanI `cWn \pIogn hXv Atlns ImemWv. ZamkvIkmbncpp apBhnbm `cWns BØm\w. kwkvImcns AXn{]mNo\amb Cu \Kcw Ckv emanI Ncn{Xnse Imb tI{amWv. imnbpw kam[m\hpw IfnbmSnbncp Imeambncpp apBhnbbptSXv. P\fpambn \à s]cpamäambncpp. hnIk\ns ]ShpIfneqsS Cu `cWw P\a\ÊpIfn Zo]vXamb kvacWIfpWÀpp.

apBhnbx(d) Xs ]nKmanbmbn ]p{X bkoZns\ \ma\nÀtiw sNbvXp. CkvemanI Ncn{Xn BZys {]hWXbmbncpp Cu \ma\nÀtiw. In kvdmbptSbpw ssIkdptSbpw amXrIbmWnsXv A¡mes {]apJ kzlm_nIÄ XpdSnp. aqp hÀj¡mew am{Xw \_ntbmSv klhkn¡m `mKyw e`n apBhnbx(d)\v Ckvemans cmjv{Sob hyhØnXnsb¡pdnpÅ [mcW¡pdhmbncpp Cs\sbmcp ZpchØ kw`hn¡m\pÅ ImcWw.

BZyw {]XnÚ, ]ns A[nImcw F coXn Anadnªp. BZyw A[nImcw ]ns {]XnÚ Fmbn amdn. CkvemanI cmjv{Sob Ncn{Xn Cu {]hW X apkvX^m IamÂ]mjbpsS ImeLtmfw bmsXmcp Cf¡hpw XmsX \ne\np.

IÀ_ebpsS IoÀ

bkoZns Øm\mtcmlWs FXnÀ P\Ä Aen(d)bpsS ]p{X\mb lpssk(d)s t\XrXzn kwLSnp. Iq^¡mÀ lpssk(d)\v ]np W {]Jym]np. s]sv Iq^bnseWsav AhÀ A`yÀYnp. Fm {] apJ kzlm_nIÄ Cu \o¡s FXnÀp. lpssk(d) kv{XoIfpw IpnIfpaSp Fgp]nctmfw t]tcmsSmw ]pdsp. AhÀ Iq^bnsepwapt bkoZns KhÀWdmb C_v\pknbmZv AhnsS Fnbncpp. knbmZns `ojWn tIv Iq^¡mÀ lpssk(d)\v \ÂInb ]npW ]nhenp. am{Xaà lpssk(d)s {]Xn\n[nbmb C_v\pDssJens\ AhÀ knbmZn\v ]nSnpsImSp¡pIbpw sNbvXp. lpssk(d) Iq^¡mcpsS Cu \S]Snbn \n cmi\mbn a¡bnte¡v aSm Xocpam\nsnepw {]XnImcZmlapÅ C_v\pDssJens ktlmZcmÀ bm{X XpScm \nÀ_Ôn¡pIbmbncpp. bq{^okv \ZoXocpÅ IÀ_ebn FnbtmÄ C_v\pknbmZns Bbncw `SmcSp ssk\yw Ahsc XSªp. lpssk(d) H\h[n A\pcRvP\ \nÀtiÄ aptmpshsnepw bkoZns\ ss_Av sN¿Wsa Bhiyn knbmZv Ddp\np. [oc\mb lpssk(d) AXv kXnnÃ. Gäpapepmbn. {]hmNIcpsS {]nbs ]u{Xs\ AhÀ \njvIcpWw h[nsp am {Xaà AwKhntÑZw \Sn, hnPbw BtLmjn¡pIbpw sNbvXpshXv Gsd ZpxJIcambn.

\_n(kz)bpsS ]u{Xt\mSv sNbvX Cu almsXän\p amp\ÂIm P\Ä ¡mIpambncpnÃ. {]apJ kzlm_nIÄ Ioscmgp¡n. aZo\¡mÀ A_vZpÃmln_v\p kpss_À(d)s\ `cWm[nImcnbm¡n. {]XnÚ sNbvXp. CXn tcm jmIpe\mb C_v\pknbmZv aZo\bn hv aqpamk¡mew Iq \cta[w \ Sn cu{Z \ramSn. CXn\nsS bkoZv acWsXp ImcWw ssk\yw Xncnpt]mbn. bkoZns ]nKmanIÄ `cWta¡m aSnp. CkvemanI temIw A _vZpÃmln_v\p kpss_À(d)s\ `cWm[nImcnbmbn AwKoIcnp.

Fm kndnbbn bkoZns IpSpw_amb _\qDa¿bpw C_v\pkpss_dns BfpIfpw Xn \S bps XpSÀv kndnbbn kpss_À(d)s `cWw Ahkm\np. aäp `mKfn `cWw XpSÀp. CXn\nSbn Daho `cWw in {]m]n¡pIbpw A_vZpÂaenIv hnPbw t\SpIbpw sNbvXp. l ÖmPp_v\p bqkp^pambpÅ bpn kpss_À(d) acWstXmsS Hcp bpKsamSpn.

A_vZpÂaenIns `cWw

CXn\ptijw kndnbbn aÀhm\p_v\p lIw F Da¿m IpSpw_mwKw Jeo^bmbn hmgn¡sp. HXpamks `cWn\p tijw AbmÄ acWaSªp. ]p{X A_vZpÂaenIv Jeo^bmbn. CdmJn \npw Cdm\n \npapÅ JhmcnPn On{ZXIsf Atlw FXnÀp tXmÂnp.

Dcm{^n¡bn \npÅ _À_co Iem]Ä ASnaÀn AXns\ ]cn]q Àambn CkvemanI Jnem^n sImphp. HutZymKnI `mj Ad_nbm¡nbpw \mWbÄ ASnnd¡nbpw Atlw CkvemanI km{amPys kzbw ]cym]vXXbnte¡v \bnp.

lnPvd 86þ96 ImeLnembncpp aenIns aI heoZv `cnncpXv. Ckv emanI km{amPyns hym]vXn Cv ssN\bpsS AXnÀn hsc Atlw Fnp. _pJmd, kaÀJv, Iohv, ImivKÀ Fo {]tZiÄ PbnS¡n ssN\bpsS AXnÀn hsc heoZns tk\m\mbI\mb JpssX_x Fn¡gnªncpp. ssN\bpsS AXnÀnbn \nv \b]camb ]S\o¡Ä¡v XpS¡w Ipdn¡th heoZv Acnp. ssk\yw Xncnpt]mbXp ImcWw ssN\mhnPbw \S¡pIbpmbnÃ.

CtX ImeLnemWv ]m¡nØm CkvemanI km{amPyns `mKambXv. Atd_ybn \nv ebnte¡v hcnIbmbncp GXm\pw kv{XoIfpw IpnIfpaSp IÂ, AXn hne]nSnpÅ ]mcntXmjnIfpmbXp ImcWw ISÂs¡mÅ¡mÀ ]mcntXmjnIsfSpv bm{X¡msc _ÔnIfm¡n ]nSnp. Chsc tamNnn¡m klmbn¡Wsamhiysp Jeo^ heoZv knÔnse `cWm[nImcnbmb Zmlndn\v IsgpXn. ]t, B Iv ZmlnÀ ]nnon hensdnªp. CtXpSÀv aplZv _n Jmknw F heoZns tk\m\mbI knÔv B{Ianp. bpn ZmlnÀ sImÃsp. As\ ]m¡nØm CkvemanI km{amPyns `mKambn XoÀp.

kvs]bn, t]mÀpK Fo {]tZiÄ IogS¡m\mbncpp heoZns A Sp DZyaw. aÀI`cWIqSambncpp A¡mev AhnsSbpmbncpXv. dm{kn¡v F `cWm[nImcnbpsS ssk\yns\Xnsc apkvenwIÄ ]S\o¡w XpSn. Hcp ss{IkvXh t\Xmhv dm{kn¡ns\Xncn apkvenw ssk\yns klmbw tXSpIbpw sNbvXp. XzmcoJv_v\p knbmZv F tk\m\mbI dm{kn¡ns ssk\ys ]cmPbsSpn. kvs]bn\pw t]mÀpKepw DÄs Apepkv IogS¡n. ]ncWokv ]ÀÆX\ncIÄ Xmn {^mkns AXnÀn hsc Cu ssk\yw Fnbncpp. ]ns aptmp t]mIm Jeo^bpsS A \phmZapmbncpnÃ.

kpsseam A_vZpÂaenImbncpp ASp `cWm[nImcn. heoZns ktlmZc\mbncpp Ctlw. tImÌmnt\mnÄ D]tcm[nXp Cu `cWImembncpp. ISenepw Icbnepw Htc kabw D]tcm[n¡sp. ]t, Cu D]tcm[n apkvenwIÄ¡v \mi\jvSw kw`hnp. aªphogvNbpw `W Inbpambncpp CXn\p ImcWw.

Dadp_v A_vZp Akokv

lnPvdx 99þ101 ImeLn CkvemanI Jnem^ns t\XrØm\p h Dadp_v A_vZp Akokv bYmÀY Jnem^ns ]p\xØm]\n\pthn {ianbmfmWv. cmPhmgvN P\Ä¡pta Agnphn {IqcXIfn Atlw Jn\mbncpp. P\Ä \nÀ_Ônv Atls `cWtaÂnp. bYmÀYhpw CkvemanIhpamb coXnbn Atlw `cWamcw`np. AgnaXnbpw kzP\]]mXhpw Atlw XpSpamän. CXv kz¡mcn Xs apdpapdppfhm¡n. \nn]vXXmÂcyÄ¡v Ax]pcfn Aeªp\S¡m\pÅ Ahkcw \ÂInbnÃ.

amXrIm]camb Dadp_v A_vZp Akokns `cWhpw \nb{Whpw A apkvenwIsf Ckvemante¡m\bnp. knÔnse cmPmZmlndns ]p{X Pbv knwKv t]mepw Ckvemans\ tXSn hp. ]t, \nn]vX XmÂcyw Atln\v Ccn¡smdpXn \ÂInbnÃ. Dadp_v A_vZp Akokns\ NneÀ hn jw sImSpv sImesSppIbmbncpp. apsmXv hbÊmbncpp {]mbw.

lnimap_v\p A_vZpÂaenIv

Dahohwinse {]KÛcmb `cWm[nImcnIfpsS Ahkm\ Inbmbncpp lnimap_v\p A_vZpÂaenIv. Ccp]Xv hÀjambncpp `cWImew. ]IzaXn bpw kaÀY\pambncpp Atlw. Jpdmkm, XpÀ¡nØm, AÀao\nb, Ak À_Pm, Dcm{^n¡ FnhnSfn Xes]m¡nb Iem]w HXp¡no Àp.

djybpsS sX¡p`mKv XpÀ¡n hwins `mKambn JkÀ hwiw Hcp im]`cWw \Sn hncpp. AkÀss_Pm\nepw AÀao\nbbnepw AhÀ B{IaWw Agnphnp. ZmKnØm hgnsbnb apkvenw ssk\yw Ahsc ]cmPbsSpn. samtdmt¡mbpsS sXt¡ AäpÅ kqkv ]Ww Ckvemans A [o\Xbn hXpw ]Snªmd ]m¡nØm\n ImivaoÀ hscbpÅ {]tZifpw Cybn DÖbn, KpPdmv, _kqPv Fo {]tZifpw IogS¡nb Xpw lnimans `cWImemWv.

Dahn¿ hnShmpp

lnimans ]nKmanbmbn hXv A_vZpÂaenIns ]p{X heoZmWv. kpJtemep]\pw aZy]m\nbpambncpp Ctlw. tKm{X]]mXnXzw Cu kabv Xes]m¡n. AXn IpSpn Atlw h[n¡sp. heoZv cmas ]p{X bkoZv _n heoZmbncpp ASp `cWm[nImcn. `cWcwKw CkvemanIam¡m Atln\p \nÀ_Ôapmbncpp. A[nImcw `{ZambncpnÃ. Jnem^n\v ]e AhIminIfpw cwKv hp. Bdpamkn\p tijw Atlw acWaSªp.

XpSÀv ktlmZc C_vdmlow heoZv `cWtasäSpp. cmPIpSpw_n Xs {]iv\Ä Xes]m¡nbXv C¡membncpp. Ctlns acWti jw aÀhm\p_v aplZv A[nImctasäSpp. ]t, B`yc ØnXnKXn Ipgªpadnªp t]mbncpp. \_n(kz)bpsS IpSpw_amb lminw IpSpw_n \npw Iem]{iafpmbn. AºmknIfpw ioCuIfpw tbmPnp. ]ns ]ncnªp. Dahn Jnem^ns\Xnsc Iem]w sNbvXp.

Aºmkn bpKw

A_vZp Aºmkv k^v^mlv Bbncpp Hmw Aºmkn Jeo^x. \mev hÀ jambncpp `cWImew. CdmJnse Aw_mÀ ]Ww BØm\ambn Atlw `cnp. Daho `cWns Ncn{Xhpw NnÓfpw ambv¡m Ctlns t\XrXzn AcpXm ]eXpw kw`hnp.

Dahn `cWm[nImcnIfpsS {IqcXIÄ¡ncbmb Aen IpSpw_ns ]npWtbmsS `cWn h AºmknIÄ `cWnsenb tijw Aen IpSpw_ s adp. lk(d)s Xmhgnbn s] C_vdmlow, aplZv FnhÀ J eo^x akzqdns Imev Iem]s¡mSn DbÀn. ChÀ cpt]scbpw _ Ô\Øcm¡m Jeo^x ssk\ys Abtmtg¡pw ChÀ cmPyw hnp. ]n oSv Xncnphp _kzd, aZo\ Fnh tI{am¡n Iem]w s]m¡n. ]t, ChÀ ]noSv h[n¡sp. _KvZmZv \Kcn\v ASnd ]mInbXv akzqdns Imembncpp. Aºmkn Jeo^amÀ¡v BØm\am¡phm\mbncpp CXv. ssS{Kokns Xocv AØnhmcan Cu \Kcw CkvemanI Ncn{Xn Gsd ]pIÄs]äXmWv. Ccp]Xv eambncpp Av _KvZmZnse P\kwJy. ]Xns\mbnctmfw ]ÅnIfpw ]Xn\mbnctmfw tdmUpIfpw H\h[n sXcphpIfpw AhnsSbpmbncpp.

alvZn_n akzqÀ

lnPvdx 158þ169 ImeLambncpp alvZn `cWImew. Aen IpSpw_n\v s]m Xpsh kam[m\ns Imeambncpp. _Ô\Øcm¡s Aen IpSpw_ s tamNnnp. AhcpsS kzp¡Ä XncnpsImSpp. ]t, ioCu ]¡mcmb CkvamCuenIÄ Iem]{iaw Ahkm\nnncpnÃ. lmdq dioZns `cWImeambncpp XpSÀv. aX`\mbncpp lmdq. tdma¡mÀ Imefmbn \ÂInbncp Icw \ÂIm hnkXnp. CXphsc AhÀ \ÂInb Icw Xncnp tNmZn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. lmdq ssk\nI \o¡w XpSn. Jq\nb, Amd Fo \KcfS¡w tdma ssk\ys ]cmPbsSpn hopw Icw \nÀ_Ôam¡n Atlw Xncnpt]mp.

aAvaq

lnPvdx cmw \qämns Ayn AenbpsS ]¡mÀ Fp ]dbsSphÀ Atd_ybn `cWw ]nSnp. aplZv FbmÄ a¡bnepw kpsseam aZo\bnepw B[n]Xyw t\Sn. Aºmkn Jeo^bmb aAvaq Hcp XnIª ioCu ]]mXnbmbncpp. ioCuIfpsS Fmw Camamb Aen cnfmsb IncoSmhIminbmbn aAvaq \nÝbnp. CXv AºmknIsf AkzØcm¡n. HSphn aAvaq\v Xocpam\w ]nhent¡n hp.

lnPvdx 247 Jeo^x apXh¡nens acWtmsS Aºmko Jnem^ns Hmw Lw inYneambn. ba\n bAv^qcnIÄ `cWw ]nSnsSpp. lwZm JÀanXzv FbmÄ t\XrXzw \ÂIn JdmanXznIÄ _kzdbn Iem]w Agnphnp. CuPn]vXv KhÀWdmbncp AlvaZv Xpeq kndnb ]nSnsSpp.

XpSÀv lnPvdx 266 apX 507 hsc CkvamCuenIfpw JdmanXznIfpw amdnamdn Atd_ybpsS `cWw ]nSnp. A{Iantbpw sImÅbptSbpw ImeLambncpp CsXÃmw. lnPvdx 402 aqkhnIÄ a¡bn `cWw ]nSnp. ]Xns\mmw \qämns Bcw`n AZ, lÀauv FnhnSfn aB\nIÄ A[nImcw ]nSnp. lnPvdx 447 kPpJn hwins t\Xmhv XpKvcnbpw 455 kpsselnIfpsS t\Xmhv Aen aplZpw a¡ `cnp. lnPvdx 470 AÂlkmbnse JdmanXzn `cWw Dssa\nIfpambpÅ Gäpapen XIÀp. lnPvdx 532 apX 566 hscbpÅ ImeLfn AlvaZp_v\p kpsseam Caman `cWw \bnp. lnPvdx 564 kzemlpo A¿q_n CuPn]vXv KhÀWdmbn A[nImctaäp. 564 Atlw ba IogS¡n.

Ime{ItaW ss{IkvXh IcfneaÀpt]mb ss_Xp aJvZnkv ^ekvXo D]tcm[nv kzemlpo Xncnp ]nSnp. ss{IkvXhÀ¡v Atlw A`bw \ ÂIn. kpnIÄ icmhpIbpw ioCuIÄ (AenbpsS ]w Fv ]dbsSpXv ChÀ¡mWv) bn¡pIbpw sNbvXXv Cu ImeLnembncpp. lnPvdx 598 lk\o hwi¡mc\mb JXmZXp_n CZvcokv AhnsS `cWw Øm]n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. JXmZ¡p tijw A¿q_nIfnÂs akvDuZv bq kp^v a¡ ]nSnsSpp. A¿q_nIÄ¡p tijw dkqenIÄ lnPvdx 625 apX 850 hsc `cnp. dkqen hwinse DaÀ_v Aen lnPvdx 626 apX 647 hsc a¡ apX KfÀauv hscbpÅ {]tZiw `cnp.

bqtdm]ymÀ hcpp

]Xn\mw \qämns Ayn bqtdm]ymÀ Atd_ybnsen. 1498 \ PvZnepÅ AlvaZv_n amPnZmWs{X Cybnte¡pÅ hgn t]mÀpKokv Inm\pw IncmX\pamb Kma¡v ImWnpsImSpXv. AÂ_p¡À¡v Dam\nepw lpÀapkznepw hym]mcm[n]Xyw Inn. 1565 ba apgph\pw A_pZpsshcn¡v AÂIkoÀ F Dkvam\n A\pIqenbmb `cWm[nImcnbpsS I¿nembncpp. Dkvam\nbmb keow Hma "JmZnap ldssa' F t]cn Adnbsp. 1521 t]mÀpKokpImÀ _lvssd B{Ianp. hnhcadnª Dkvam\n Jeo^x t]mÀpKokpImcpambn s]mcpXn _lvssd Xncnp]nSnp.

IcamÀapÅ hmWnPyw \nept]mbXn\m Dkvam\n Jnem^v kmnI {]XnkÔnbnÂsp. Bkv{Snb, bqtdm]ymÀ Fnhcpambn XpÀ¡nbnse Dkvm\nbm Jnem^n\p Gäpaptnbpw hp. 1602 _lvssd IogS¡nb jm Aºmkv Hma\pambn 1622 CuÌnym I\n kJyapm¡n. lpÀapkzse t]mÀpKokv IpI Ahkm\nnp. Fm akvJXzn t]mÀpKokpImÀ kzm[o\apdnp. UpImcpw CwojpImcpw Atd_ybn kzm[o\w t\Sm aÕcnp. ]Xns\mmw iXIn Atd_ybn UpImÀ¡v hmWn Py kzm[o\apmbn.

B[p\nI Atd_y

]{mw \qämns Bcw`tmsS \PvZn aplZv_n A_vZp hlvlm _v XpSnsh ]cnjvIcW {]Øm\w Atd_ybn kzm[o\w t\Sn. Ckvem an \ncmt]w \Sphncp BNmcÄ A\mNmcfm¡n ap{ZbSn¡ sp. len aZvl_pImc\mbncpp hlvlm_v FXv B[p\nI A\pbmbnIfn \nv Atln\pÅ khntijXbmWv. ]qÀÆoI ]WvVnXmÀ apgph\pw AbmfpsS \o¡Äs¡Xnsc kapZmbs t_m[hXvIcnp.

CkvemanI kaqln henb kzm[o\anÃmsX hmSn¡cnªpWnhoWpt]mth B {]Øm\s ]noSv {]Ncnn¡m tlXpIambXv AXn\p e `n cmjv{Sob ]n_eambncpp. F.Un.1765 ZÀC¿ `cnncp aplZv _v\p kDuZv hlm_ns Bibfn BIrjvS\mbtXmsS AbmÄ¡v cm jv{Sob kzm[o\w e`np. AÂlkm, AÂDssb\x Fo {]tZiÄ Abm Ä¡v Iognembn. Ccp]Xv hÀjw \o sNdpp\nÂn\p tijw dnbmZpw a ^qlbpw hlm_ns Nnm[mc¡v cmjv{Sobambn XeIp\nt¡n hp. 1765 aplZv_v\p kDuZv acWsSptmÄ Atd_ybpsS a[yIng¡ {]tZiÄ apgph\pw Atlns {]Øm\n\p Iognembntmbncpp.

kDuZn\p tijw A_vZp Akokv 1803 A[nImctaäp. _lvssd\pw Ham Xochpw kDuZv `cWns Iogn hXv A¡memWv. 1814  _kzd, IÀ _e, kndnb Fo \mSpIÄ IqSn kDuZv_n A_vZp Akokns t\Xr Xzw ]nSnsSpp.

CXn\nsS Dkvam\n¿m Jnem^pambn Gäpapn. 1811 apX 1818 hsc Gäpap XpSÀp. A_vZpà kpDuZv ]cmPbsp. CuPn]vXnse KhÀWÀ aplZenbpsS ]p{X C{_mlow ]mj ZÀC¿m ]Ww IogS¡n. ]t, Dkvam\n¿m Jnem^ns {]Xn\n[nIÄ XoÀpw A\nkvemanI `cWw \SnbXn\m B `cWIqSw kDuZnbn \npw XpSpamäsp.

1824 aplZv_v\p kDuZns ]p{X\mb XpÀ¡n CuPn]vXpImcn \nv dnbmZv tamNnnp `cWw ]p\xØm]np. 1834 XpÀ¡nbpsS ]p{X\mb ss^k A[nImcn hp. C¡mev {_nojv km{amPyw Atd_ybnse ]e Øefnepw kzm[o\apdnp. 1865 ss^k acnp. ]p{XmÀ Xn A[nImc InSaÕcambn. 1865 ss^k acn¡pwapv Xs XpÀ¡nIÄ InSaÕcw apXseSpv Atd_y ]nSnncpp. 1875  A_vZpà cma dnbmZn A[nImcn hp.

B[p\nI Atd_ybpsS `cWm[nImcnsbdnbsSp C_v\pkpDuZv A[nImctaäXv 1876 emWv. 1904  XpÀ¡n kJys tXmÂnp A[nImcw `{Zam ¡n. 1919  lnPmkv A[o\Xbnem¡n. 1925  aZo\bpw Pnbpw ]nSnsSpp. 1928  kwbp Atd_ybpsS `cWm[nImcnbmbn. CXmWv kDuZn Atd_y F t]cn AdnbsSp cmjv{Sw. 1934 se bpn ba\nse Camw blv bmsb ]cmPbsSpn kDuZn Atd_y \Pvdm ssIhisSpn.

1953  C_v\p kpDuZns acWspSÀv kDuZv_v\p A_vZp Akokv cmPmhmbn. XpSÀv ss^k _nA_vZp Akokv, JmenZv_n A_vZp Akokv FnhÀ `cWkmcYytaäp. 1982 Pq 13\v `cWtasäS ^lZv _n A_vZp Akokv 2005 Pqsse 31 \v acWaSªtmÄ, IncoSmhIminbmb A_vZpÃm_n A_vZp Akokv 2005 BKkvXn `cWtasäSpp.  

 

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