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{]tXyI ^o

\_nZn\w

atäXp cwKhpw t

]p\ÀPhpw hnizmkhpw

 

BhiyanÃmXv ]dbmXncn¡pI Camw A_ql\o^(d)

 

\_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡sf ]p\cpÖohnn¡sSpIbpw AhÀ hnizmknfm hpbpw sNbvXp Fp hyam¡p lZokv Bbni_ohn(d)bn \nv Dcn¡s npv.

"amXm]nXm¡sf Pohnnp sImSp¡m\mbn \_n(kz) XÄ AÃmlphnt\mSv {]mÀ Yn¡pbpmbn. As\ Ahsc AÃmlp \_n(kz)XÄ¡pthn ]p\cpÖohn np. AtmÄ AhÀ \_n(kz)bn hnizkn¡pIbpw sNbvXp'.

JXzo_p _KvZmZn(d), ZmdJpXvz\n(d), C_v\p AkmInÀ(d), C_v\p imlo(d), ap lnºpzn_vcn(d), kpsslen(d) XpSnbhÀ CXpcnnpv. Camw JpÀXzp_n(d), \mkzndpo\pÂap\oÀ(d), C_v\pk¿nZnmkv(d), kzemlpÊ^Zn(d), iwkpo\nnaiv Jn(d) XpSnbhÀ CXv Ahew_np NÀ \Snbnpapv (lmhn:2/230).

Cu kw`hw DcnpsImv Camw kqsslen(d) ]dbpp: ""AÃmlp kÀÆi\m Wv. Ahs ImcpWyhpw inbpw Hn\pw Ahs\ Ai\m¡qIbnÃ. Ah\n On¡p {]tXyI ImcyÄ¡p \_n(kz) XÄ AÀlXbpÅhcmWv''(A dufp  D\p^v:2/187).

Caw JpÀzXp_n(d) FgpXpp: ""\_n(kz) XfpsS t{ijvTXIfpw {]tXyIXIfpw  XpScpXmWv. Cu (]p\cpÖohnn¡Â) kw`hw \_n(kz)sb AÃmlp BZcnXpw t{ijvTam¡nbXpamb Imcyfn s]Xs{X.

_pnbpw CkvemanI \nbafpw AhcpsS ]p\cpÖoh\n\pw kXyhnizmkn \pw hntbmPn¡pnÃ.(ImcWw) Cukm\_n(A) acWshsc ]p\ÀPohnnnpv. \_n(kz)Xfpw Pohnnnpv. Cs\ Ahscbpw amXm]nXm¡sfbpw ]p\ÀPo hnnnpsnÂ, \_n(kz) XfpsS BZchpw alXzhpw hÀnn¡ms\ \ne¡v AhÀ kXyw hnizkn¡pXn\pw {]Xn_Ôambn HpanÃ.

""hnizmknbmbÃmsX acWs HcmÄ Xncnphm AbmfpsS hnizmkw D]Imc{] ZasÃhmZw \ne\nÂ]nÃmXmWv. ImcWw \_n(kz) XÄ¡v kqcys\ aS¡n s¡mp hcnIbpmbnptÃm. CXv kabs ]pXp¡pXn\v(]gb AhØbn em¡pXn\v) D]Icn¡pXsÃn As\ Hv kw`hnt¡XnÃmbncpp; F t]mse \_n(kz)XfpsS amXm]nXm¡fpsS ]p\cpÖoh\w AhcpsS kXyhnizm kn\pw \_n(kz)sb AwKoIcn¡pXn\pw D]bpw XsbmWv''(XZvInd: t]Pv: 16).

Camw A_ql\o^(d)bpsS AÂ^nJvlp AIv_dns hymJymXmhmb AÃmam ap lvbpo aplZv_v\p _lmDo(d) FgpXpp:

""amXm]nXm¡sf ]p\cpÖohnn¡m\mbn AÃmlphnt\mSv \_n(kz)XÄ {]mÀYn p. As\ AÃmlp Ahsc ]p\cpÖohnnp. \_n(kz) Ahsc kXyhnizmk nte¡p Wnp. AhcXn\v A\pIqeambn Dcw sNbvXp Fp Nne lZokpIfn hnpÅXv `uXnI PohnXImet kXyhnizmkw ^esSpIbpÅq FXn s {]amWfpsS s]mXphmb XmÂ]cyns\XncmWv. ]t,  s]mXphmb \nba fn \np hyXykvXambn kzw PohnXn Nne {]tXyIXIfpÅhcmWv \_n(kz) FXv kp{KmlyamWv. Nne Bcm[\Ifnepw Nne CS]mSpIfnepsaÃmw \_n(kz)¡v Cu {]tXyImhØbptÃm. \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡fpsS Im cyhpw Acw {]tXyIXIfn s]SpXmWv. AhcpsS Imcynepw km[mcWa Ãm \nbafpmhmsaXv ZpÀ{Klamb kwKXnsbmpaÃ''(AÂJuep ^kvz Â. t]Pv :396).

Camw JpÀXzp_n(d) Xs X^vkoÀ hmfyw 2 t]Pv 64epw hmfyw 9 t]Pv 172epw CXp kw_Ôambn hnhcnnpv.

C_v\plPÀ(d) ]dbpp. ""CXmWv kXyw. am{Xaà lm^nfpIfmb lZokp ]WvVn XamÀ kzlolmsWp hn[nnpÅ lZokn Cu lZokv ZpÀ_eamsWp ]d ªhsc AhÀ ]cnKWnnnà \nÝbw, AÃmlp Ahsc cp t]scbpw \_n(kz) XÄ¡pthn Pohnn¡pIbpw AhÀ hnizkn¡pIbpw sNbvXnpspv. CXv \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡Ä¡pÅ {]tXyIXbpw \_n(kz)XÄ¡pÅ B Zchpambncpp''( A an\lp a¡n¿: 1/151).

lÖpÂhnZmCs bm{Xbn \_n(kz)XÄ amXmhns J_vdv kÀinXpw {]mÀY\ \SnbXpw AsX¡pdnv kzlm_nIÄ¡v hnhcnXpw  B {]mÀY\bpsS ^eambn Ban\(d)sb AÃmlp ]p\cpÖohnnXpw AhÀ hnizknXpw ]WvVnX {]apJÀ DcnXmWv(DZmlcWw AÂ_nZmbXp hnlmb:2/363 A dufp D\p^v:2/188).

AÃmam C_v\pimlo(d) Xs AmknJphÂakqJv(ZpÀ_esSpnbXpw ZpÀ _esSpsXpw) F {KÙn C¡mcynepmIm\nSbpÅ Hcp kzm`mhn I kwibn\p adp]Sn ]dbppv. "\_n(kz) XÄ amXmhn\p thn ]m]tam N\ {]mÀY\ \Sm kXw tNmZntmÄ AÃmlp \ÂInbncpnÃ. B kwi bns {]Xnhn[n ImWpI:

]m]tamN\ {]mÀY\ \ScpsXv(CkvXnKv^mÀ sN¿cpsXv) hne¡nbXns\  Cu lZokv ZpÀºesSppp( lmhn:2/230).

C_v\plPÀ XÄ CXns\¡pdnv Xs AÂan\lv hmfyw 1 t]Pv 152Â hnhcn ¡ppv.

Camw JpÀXzp_n(d) CsX¡pdnp ]dbpp: ""AÃmlphn\p kvXpXn! ChnsS Hcp ssh cpyhpanÃ. ImcWw \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡fpsS ]p\ÀPw AhÀ¡v ]m ]tamN\{]mÀY\(CkvXnKv^mÀ) \ScpXv F \ntcm[\n\p tijamWv. AXv lÖp hnZmCembncpp F Bbni(d)bpsS lZokv AXn\p sXfnhmWv''( XZvInd: t]Pv:16).

]p\ÀPkw_Ôamb lZokv ZpÀºeamsWXp icn Xs. ]t, CXv Hcp aX\n baw Øm]n¡pXnt\m \ncmIcn¡pXnt\m thn Dcn¡pXÃ. \nba{][m \amb Hcp lZokpaÃ. Camw PpÀPm(d) ]dbpp: HcpIqw lm^nfpIfmb ]WvVn XÀ Cu lZoknt\mSv tbmPn¡ppv. ImcWw AXv KpWKWÄ hnhcn¡p lZokmWv.  C¡mcyn ZpÀºe lZokpIfpw D]tbmKn¡mhpXmWv(^Xvlp AÃmw:1/40).

Cu lZnkns\ C_v\pÂPukn \nÀnX lZokpIfn DÄsSpnbnpv. ]n¡m e¡mcmb NneÀ Atls AÔambn Ahew_nnpapv. Fm C_v\p Pu kn, kzlolp apkvenanse lZokpIÄ hsc Cu KWn Fnbnpv FtmÀ ¡Ww. Camw AlvaZv_v\p lÂ(d)hns lZokpIÄ [mcmfw Cu KWn s]Sp nb BfmWv C_v\pÂPukn.  lZokpIÄ \nÀnXamsWv  hn[nsbgpXpXn emLh_pn {]ISnnbmfmbncpp Atlw. C_v\plPÀ(d) C_v\p Pukn bpsS Cu \ncpchmZ kao]\s hyam¡m Hcp {KÙw Xs cNnnpv. "A Juep aphZv' FmWXns t]cv(t\m¡pI: kp_pep lpZm:1/258).

Ctlns Cu \ne]mSn\memWv C_v\p lPÀ(d) Xs AÂan\lp a¡n¿: hm fyw1 t]Pv 151 "Bt]IcpsS Bt]w AhKWnp' Fp ]dªXv. amXm]n Xm¡fpsS ]p\ÀPhpw hnizmkhpw NÀ sNbvXØnXn¡v ChnsSbpmIm\nSbp Å Hcp kwibn\v C_v\p lPÀ(d) \ÂInb adp]Sn IqSn hmbn¡pI:

tNmZyw: AhÀ cpt]cpw {]hmNI iq\yImev PohnhcmsWpw AXn\m Xs AhÀ inn¡sSpIbnsÃpw hm ]ns Fn\mWhsc ]p\ÀP\nn p hnizknnXv? AXnsep ImcyamWpÅXv?

adp]Sn: {]hmNIiq\yIme¡mÀ¡v e`n¡m ]qÀX AhÀ¡v e`yam¡m thnbmbncpp AXv. ImcWw ^Xvdv Ime¡mÀ inbn \np tamw e`n¡pI F Imcyn kXyhnizmknItfmsSmamWv FXp am{XamWv AhcpsS ]camh[n ku`mKyw. Fm DXamb {]Xn^ens ]ZhnIÄ AhÀ¡v A{]m]yamWv.  AXn\m B ]ZhnIÄ e`yamhpIhgn AXypX Øm\nÀlcmhm thn kXyhniymkns ]ZhnIqSn AhÀ¡v(\_n (kz)XfpsS amXm]nXm¡Ä¡v) \ÂIsSpIbmWpmbXv(A an\lp a¡n¿:1/152).

\_n(kz)Xsf kw_ÔnnStmfw  amXm]nXm¡Ä¡v sFlnIamb KpWfpw tkh\fpw \ÂIm AhkcapmbnnÃ. AXn\m Xs km[n¡p ]mc{XnI KpWw AhÀ¡v e`yam¡m AhnSpp Ahkcapm¡n Fp \ap¡v a\Ênem ¡mhpXmWv.

 

BhiyanÃmXv ]dbmXncn¡pI

\_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡sf kw_Ônp \ hnNmcn¡m\pw ]dbm\pw am{X ta hnizmkn¡v km[n¡pIbpÅp. C¡mcyn {]kvXpX \ymbfpw {]amW fpw \nehnencns¡ adnv Nnn¡pXp IcWobhpaÃ. \_n(kz) XfpsS amXr ]nXr ]Zhn Xs AhÀ¡p e`n alXzambn a\Ênem¡mhpXmWv. AXn\m X s Ahsc¡pdnv Fsnepw ]dbpXv IcpXtemsSbmbncn¡Ww.

FmWp Xm ]dbpsXpw Bsc¡pdnmWp ]dbpsXpw AXns {]Xym LmXsfsms¡bmsWpw BtemNnXn\p tijw am{Xta hÃXpw ]dbmhq. AÃmam Beqkn Xs X^vkodn kqdpÈpAdmAv 219mw kqns hymJym \n ]dbpp:

""Cu kqw \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡fpsS kXyhnizmkn\p sXfnhmsb Spnpv. AlvepÊpbnse ]WvVnX{]apJscÃmw Cu hoWapÅhcmWv. \_n (kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡sf¡pdnv(AhÀ cpt]scbpw AÃmlp Xr]vXnsSt) AcpXmXv ]dbphcpsS ta Rm Ip^vdns\ `bsSpp (X^vkoÀ, dqlp aB\n:10/135).

Atlw \_n(kz)bpsS amXm]nXm¡Ä¡v "dfnbÃmlp Alpam' F XÀfnbXv tcJsSpnbXv {itbamWv. sXfnhpIfpw \ymbfpw DÄs¡mÅm\mbnsÃn epw. AhscIpdnv tamiamb Hcp {]tbmKhpw DmhcpsXmWv BeqknbpsS hnhcWns XmÂ]cyw. AXp KpcpXchpw kXyhnizmkst]mepw XIÀp Ifbp ]mXIhpamWv Fs{X Atlw kqNnn¡pXv.

kp{]kn amen¡o ]WvVnX\mb A_q_Ivdn_v\p Ad_ntbmSv "\_n(kz) X fpsS ]nXmhv \cInemsW'v ]dbphscIpdnv tNmZn¡stmÄ "AhÀ i]n ¡shcmWv. ImcWw AÃmlp ]dbpp: \nÝbw, AÃmlphns\bpw Ahs ZqXs\bpw hnjann¡phsc Clnepw]cnepw AÃmlp i]nncn¡pp. hf sc tamiamb in AhÀ¡mbn  X¿mdm¡sncn¡pp'(Bibw, A Alvkm _v:57) Fmbncpp {]XnIcWw.

\_n(kz) XfpsS ]nXmhv \cInemsWp ]dbpXns\¡mÄ henb ]oU\an ÃsÃm.( lmhn:2/23)

Camw JkvXzÃm\n(d) ]dbpp ""AXpsImp Xs \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm ¡fn \yq\Xbmtcm]n¡pXp hfsc kqnt¡XmWv.  AXp \_n(kz) Xsf ]oUnn¡emhpw. km[mcWKXnbn HcmfpsS ]nXmhns\Ipdnv \yq\X ]dbsSpItbm hntijnn¡sSpItbm sN¿pXphgn km\Ä ]oUnn¡sSpIbmWv. "acWshsc Bt]nv ]dªpsImv Pohnncn¡phsc \nÄ hnjann¡ cpXv' (Xz_vdm\n: Ikq DmÂ:37417)Fp \_n(kz) XÄ ]dªnpv(A ahmln_v:1/182).

acWshsc Bt]n¡p cwKÄ Itmsgms¡ \_n(kz)XÄ AXp XncppIbpw Xm¡oXv \ÂIpIbpw sNbvXXmbn lZokpIfn ImWmw.

A_qPlv \_n(kz)XfpsSbpw apkvenwIfpsSbpw henb hntcm[nbmbncpp F Xv Ncn{X bmYmÀYyamWv. Atlns ]p{X\mb CIvcna(d) Ckvemw aXw kzo IcntmÄ Xs ]nXmhns\¡pdnv A_qPlv Fp]dbpXv X\n¡p _pnap pm¡ppshp \_n(kz)XtfmSv ]cmXnsp. AtmÄ \_n(kz) ""acWshsc ]dªv Pohnncn¡phsc \nÄ hnjann¡cpXv'' Fv ]dbpIbpmbn (IkpÂDm 37418).

A_qel_ns ]p{Xn k_oA(d) kXyhnizmkn\nbmbncpp. AhÀ \_n(kz) X sf kao]nv Cs\ BhemXn t_m[nnp: "AÃmlphns ZqXtc, P\sfs  \cInse hndIns aItf Fp hnfn¡pp. CXptI \_n(kz) AÂ]w CuÀjyXtbmsS Xs ]dªp: "Fs IpSpw_ns hnjbn Fs hnjann¡phcpsS ØnXnsbmWv? Fs Bscnepw hnjannm Ah AÃmlphns\bmWv hnjann¡pXv'. Cu kw`hw A_qlpssdd(d)hn \nv C_v\papZndpw aäpw \nthZ\w sNbvXnpv(XAvIoZpÂAZnÃ: t]Pv:15).

Cu kw`hw C_v\pAZn¿v(d)hpw Dcnnpv. (AÂh^m: t]Pv 168)

A_qel_ns  aIÄ ZpÀdtbmSp kv{XoIfn NneÀ "\o \in¡s Fv AÃmlp ]dªnpÅ A_qel_ns aIftà \o' Fp ]dªp. alXn CXv \_n(kz)tbmSv  ]dªp. AtmÄ \_n(kz) {]kwKn¡m\mbn Fgptäp. Fnp ]dªp: ""P\ tf, FmWnXv? Fs IpSpw_ Imcyn Rm hnjann¡sSpphtÃm. AÃmlphmsW, Fs i^mAv Fs IpSpw_w aptJ\bmWv e`yamhpI''. Cu kw`hw C_v\pDaÀ(d), A_qlpssdd(d), AmÀ(d) Fnhcn \np C_v\paÀZsshln Dcnnpv (AÂh^m t].:167).

(ZpÀdbpw k_oAbpw HcmÄ Xsbmhm\pÅ km[yX XÅn¡fbm\mhnÃ. ImcWw A_pqel_n\v k_oA Fp t]cpÅ Hcp aIfpÅXmbn AdnbnÃ. Fm ZpÀd (d) F aIÄ apkvenambXpw AhcnÂ\nv lZokpIÄ Dcn¡sXpw Ncn{Xnepv. AtmÄ ]ns k_oA FXv alXnbpsS A]c\matam atäm Bbncn¡mw).

Npcp¡n acWshcpsS Imcyw ]dªv Pohnncn¡phsc ieysSpp {]hWX Ckvemw shdp¡pXmWv. Ckvemanse kwkvImc ]mTnÂsXmWnXv. Pohnncp Imev Xs IpSpw_s hnjann kÀ`n \_n(kz) XÄ FSp \ne]mSpIfmWv apIfnepcnXv. hntbmKm\cw \_n(kz)bpsS amXm]nXm¡sf¡pdnpw \_n(kz)sb¡pdnp Xsbpw A\mhiyambn NÀ \Sn tImeml eapm¡phcpsS Imcyn klX]n¡mt\ \ap¡p  \nÀÆmlapÅq.

 

Camw A_pl\o^(d)

aZvl_ns CamapIfn {]Yacmb Camw A_ql\o^(d) Ckvemans ASnØm\ \nbaÄ hnhcn¡p Hcp {KÙw cNnnpv: AÂ^nJvlpÂAIv_À. CsXmcp kmtXnI kwÚbmWv. IÀimkv{Xhn[nIÄ {]Xn]mZn¡p CkvemanI hnÚm\imJ¡v "^nJvlv' Fp ]dbpXp t]mse ASnØm\ BZÀi hnjbÄ {]Xn]mZn¡p hnÚm\imJ¡v "AÂ^nJvlpÂAIv_À' Fp ]dbpp.

Cu IrXnbpsS Nne ]XnpIfn ]ckv]csshcp[yw Iphcppv. AXn Hv \psS hnjbhpambn _Ôs KuchXcamb Hcp {]tbmKamWv. CXp kw_Ônv almamcmb ]WvVnXÀ NÀ \Sn \nPØnXn ]pdpsImphnpv. sXänmcWmP\Iamb DcWnbpsS hniIe\n AÃmam apÃm Aen¿pÂJmcn(d) \Snb A`n{]mb {]IS\w ]WvVnXtemIw tNmZyw sNbvXnpv. l\^oIÀimkv{X {KÙamb ZpÀdpÂapJvXmdns ]mÀiz¡pdnn CXns\ Camw XlvXzmhn(d) JÞn¡pIbpw tNmZyw sN¿pIbpw sNbvXnpv. Atlw ]dbpp:

""\_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡sf kw_Ônv Ccw ]cmaÀiw acymZtISmWv. AhÀ cpt]cpw kXy\ntj[n \np tamNnXcmWv FmWv \mw AwKoIcnt¡Xv.'' XpSÀv Atlw ]dbpp: ""AÂ^nJvlpÂAIv_dn hnpÅ ]cmaÀihpw A`n{]mbhpw Camw A_ql\o^(d)bpsS t]cn AXn ISn¡qnb XmWv. Ahew_tbmKyamb ]XnpIfnsempw Cu {]tbmKanà FXv CXp ]no Sv IqntÀXmWv FXn\p sXfnhmWv. {KÙn "\ntj[nbpambpÅ hnhmlw' F A[ymbnemWnXpÅXv''(AÂapkvX\Zp apAvXaZv t]:167þ169).

AÂ^nJvlpÂAIv_dn\v lnPvd 333 acWs A_qakzqdnÊaÀJo(d) (Camw amXpcoZnbmWnsXv a\Ênem¡m\mhpp. Fm {KÙn AXn\v Dt]mÂ_eIamb ]cmaÀiÄ ImWm IgnbpnÃ). cNn hymJym\tmsSbpÅ ]Xnn  sXänmcWmP\Iamb Cu ]cmaÀiw XsbnÃ.

""A_ql\o^(d) hBdmDlp ^nÂAJoZ:'' F {KÙn Camw A_ql\o^ (d)hns {]kvXpX {KÙnse sXänmcWmP\Iamb ]cmaÀin "am' F \n tj[kqNIw IqSnbpv. ssIsdmbnse sse{_dnbn CXns Is¿gpv {]Xnbn "am' Dsv {KÙt{ImUoIcWw \SnbhÀ AhImisnpv. (XAvIoZp AZnÃ: t].33)

Cu hniIe\s icnsh¡pXmWv "AÂJuepÂ^kzvÂ' F IrXnbpsS ASn¡pdnv. "am' F Acw a\x]qÀÆw hnpIfªtXm, A_him hnpt]mb tXm BIm\mWv km[yX.(AÂJuepÂ^kzv t].394) "am' F \ntj[kqNIapsn Bibw kphyamWv. C\n As\ AsÃn Xs, AYhm "am' F Ahybw Dmbmepw  AXns Bibw ZpÊqNIaà F A`n{]mbamWv C_v\p lPÀ(d) Xs ^Xmhbn {]ISnnncn¡pXv. AtXmsSmw "Cs\ ]cmaÀiapÅ {]kvXpX {KÙw  Camw A_ql\o^(d)bptSXÃ;  A_ql\o^ aplZv_v\pbqkp^p _pJmcn FhcptSXmWv Fpw C_v\plPÀ(d) ]dªnpv(t\m¡pI, AÂapkvX\Z:v t].167).

Cu {]tbmKw apJhnes¡Spp NÀ \Snb apÃm Aen¿pÂJmcn(d)  Xs \ne]mSv ]noSv amänbnpv. JmfoCbmfv(d)hns "AÈn^m_nXAvco^n lpJqJn apkvXz^m(kz)' F IrXn¡v FgpXnb hymJym\ {KÙn  CXp kw_Ôambn ]WvVnXtemIns \ne]mSv Aen¿pÂJmcn(d) FSpp]dbppv.

"Fm \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡Ä apkvenambXns\¡pdnv hnhn[ A`n{]mbfpv. AhcpsS Ckveman\mWv Gähpw IqSpX km[yXbpÅXv. AXmWv kapZmbnse {]apJ]WvVnXamcpsS GIIWvTamb A`n{]mbw.  Camw kpbqYn (d) Xs cnkmeIfn  AXp hnhcnnpv'(XAvIoZpÂAZnà t].34).

apÃm Aen¿pÂJmcn(d) \_n(kz) XfpsS aplnºpw {]hmNIm]Zm\fpsS hymJymXmhpsams¡ Bbncpnpw \_n(kz)XfpsS amXm]nXm¡sf¡pdnv sXänmcWmP\Iamb ]cmaÀiw  \SnbXn\mepmb Zpc\p`hÄ dntmÀv sN¿snpv.

""Aen¿pÂJmcn(d)bpsS a¿nv Ipfnn¡ptmÄ hmbn \mhv ImWm\pmbncpnÃ. IpfnnhÀ¡nXp hfsc {]bmkIcambntmn. ]noStls kz]v\n  ZÀintmÄ \_n(kz) XfpsS amXm]nXm¡sf¡pdnv Xm cNn IrXn ImcWamWns\ kw`hnsXtlw hniZam¡pIbpmbn!'' (AÂ^Xmh Akvlcn¿: t].20).

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