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atäXp cwKhpw t

{]hmNI kvt\lns a[p`mjnXw

 

\nbpsSbpw h\nsbpw hnImcw tXmakv {_u ]dª t]mse ""DÖzeamb kvt\l hnImcw XsbmWv. Hcp hynbn \np \ap¡v t\Ä e`n¡ptmgmWv Cu kvt\l hnImcapmIpXv. kqÀamb ktmjtmsSbpw A\yq\amb BßmÀYXtbmsSbpw \nÀÆln¡p t{ijvTamb s]cpamätmSpÅ ^e{]Zamb {]XnIcWamWp \nbpw h\hpw. Cu {]XnIcWw kXzchpw kzm`mhnIhpamWv''. HcmÄ kvt\ln¡sSm\pw XZzmcm \n¡pw h\n\pw AÀl\mbnocm\papÅ ImcWns Hcp `uXnI hoWamWp apIfn DcnXv. s{]m. hneyw tUhnUv k (William H. Davidson) Atlns aX [Àa hnÚm\ tImin (Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics vol: 6, P. 391)  tcJsSpnbnpÅ hoWamWnXv.

 

Cu hoWw A]qÀamWv. kvt\lhmbv]ns Hcp \nanw am{XamWv CXn Nqn¡mWnnpÅXv. Fp \qämpIÄ¡p apv Jmfo Cbmfv(ln: 476þ544) \Snb hoWw hfsc ka{KamWv. ""a\pjys A`ncpNntbmSv Hcp hkvXpthm hyntbm HuNnXyw ]peÀpXp aqew Ah\v B hkvXphnt\mSv AsÃn B hyntbmSv Dmhp {]Xn]nbmWp kvt\lw. Fm kvt\ln\m[mcamb Cu HuNnXyn\p ImcWambn hÀn¡pXp aqp kwKXnIfmWv. B hyn Ahs ]t{nbÄ¡p tKmNco`hn¡pXp sImv Ah\v BkzmZ\apmhpI. kpccq]tfmSpw kpc`neKÔtfmSpw a[pci_vZtfmSpw cpNnIcamb Blmc]m\obtfmSpw a\pjy kvt\lw {]ISnn¡pXv C¡mcWmemWv. cv, Hcp hynbpsS t{ijvTamb BcnI KpWsf kw_Ônp _pn aptJ\bpmIp {KlWmkzmZ\w. kÖ\Ä, ]ÞnXmÀ, [ÀanjvTÀ, kcnXcpw kZvhrcpambn Adnbs aäp hynIÄ Chscsbms¡ \mw kvt\ln¡pXv Cu hgn¡mWv. Cc¡mtcmSpÅ kvt\l hmbv]v {]IrXn klPamWv. aqv, B hynbn \nv D]Imctam A\p{Kltam e`n¡pI. D]Imchpw KpWhpw sN¿phtcmSp kvt\lw P\n¡pI a\pjy{]IrXamWv(in^m 2:23).

 

HcmÄ asämcmsf kvt\ln¡pXn\p ImcWambn aqp ImcyfmWp Nqn¡mWnncn¡pXv. kucyw XpSnb _mlyKpWÄ, hnÚm\w XpSnb BcnI KpWÄ, Abmfn \np X\n¡p e`n¡p \Ifpw D]Imcfpw. Cu aqn\Ä¡pw imJIfpw D]imJIfpapv. Ahsbms¡ kvt\ln\m[mcamWv. Hcp hynbn HptNÀ KpWfpsS Fnsbpw hnsbpw A\p]mXa\pkcnmbncn¡pw kvt\lns Gä¡pdnÂ. kpct\mSpw almkpct\mSpapÅ kvt\lw XpeyaÃ. ]ÞnXt\mSpw alm]ÞnXt\mSpapÅ kvt\lÄ Xnepapv Acw. A{]Imcw Xs sNdnb KpWw sNbvXht\mSpÅ kvt\laà henb KpWw sNbvXht\mSpÅXv. Hcp KpWw sNbvXht\mSpmbnocp kvt\lhpw ]e KpWÄ sNbvXht\mSpÅ kvt\lhpw Xn {]ISamb hyXymkw ImWmw.

 

Fm kvt\lns FÃm \nanfpw ka{Kambn Hcp hynbn Hp tNÀ mtem? B hyn temIv, FÃmhcmepw, Ftmgpw, Gähpw kvt\ln¡sSm AÀl\mbncn¡psa Imcyn XÀ¡n\nSbnÃ. As\ Hcp hyn ]t DmIptam? AXp kw`hyamtWm? AtX, kw`hyamWv; kw`hnnpv. temIw B hynsb hyambn Ip. Atlns AXpeyamb hyn{]`mhs i{Xpan{X t`Zsat\y tcJsSppIbpapmbn.

 

kucyw, kuc`yw, {]kX, {]Xn`min, kZmNmcw, kÂkz`mhw, kl\w, klnjvWpX, hnime a\kvIX, hnime hoWw, ZoÀL ZÀi\w, ImcpWyw, alma\kvIX, ss[cyw, ssØcyw, kmlknIX, `cWw, t\XrXzw, kzm[o\w, \bX{w, \oXn\ymbw, bp]mShw, ssk\ym[n]Xyw, A[ym]\w, kwkvIcWw, kapmcWw, {]kwKw, D]tZiw, inWw, ØntcmÕmlw, BßmÀYX, {]hÀ\w, tkh\w, kwLmS\w, BZnbmb FÃm alZv KpWfnepw AcmÀYn AXpeyamb Hcp almhynXzs \mw Ncn{Xn ImWpp. AXmWp temI{]hmNI\mb aplZv \_n(kz). a\pjy kaqlns tamn\pw kapmcWn\pw thn \_n(kz) sNbvXnpÅ tkh\amWv Gähpw {itbambnpÅXv. Jmfo Cbmfn(d)s\ Xs Dcn¡s. ""kIe hnizmknIÄ¡pw AhnSpv sNbvX KpWs¡mÄ alcamsbmcp KpWw asäpv.!? kÀÆ apkvenwIÄ¡pw AhnSpv sNbvX A\p{Kls¡mÄ henb A\p{Klw asäpv!? AhÀ¡v amÀ ZÀi\w \ÂIn AÔXbn \nhsc cnp hnPbnte¡pw {]Xm]nte¡pw Ahsc Wnp. AhcpsS \mY\nte¡pÅ am[yahpw in]mÀiI\pw kmnbpambn hÀn¡pIbpw imizX ku`mKyhpw \nXykuJyhpw AhÀ¡v A\nhmcyam¡noÀ¡pIbpw sNbvXp.

aX hoWn bYmÀY kvt\lns AhIminbmWp \_nXsfp lZokpIÄ hyam¡pp. {]IrXym t\m¡nbmepw bYmÀY kvt\ln\p {]hmNI AÀl\msW Imcyw kv]jvSamWv. XfpsS hnimeamb KpWhpw hym]Iamb A\p{Klhpw AXn\p sXfnhmWv. `uXnI temIv X\n¡v Htm ctm XhW hà D]Imchpw \ÂIpItbm AsÃn Hc]ISn \ntm Hcp sNdnb hnjan \ntm c \ÂIpItbm sNbvX hynsb a\pjy kvt\ln¡ppshn A\izc ku`mKyw {]Zm\w sN¿pIbpw HSpm inbn \np cn¡pIbpw sNbvX hyn a\pjys kvt\ln\v Gähpw AÀl\mWv. a\pjy {]IrXym Xs, Hcp `cWm[n]s\ Ahs kZv`cWns t]cnepw Hcp \ymbm[n]s\ Ah s \oXnbpsS t]cnepw Hcp hnZqckvYs\ AbmfpsS {]knamb hnÚm\ns tbm kz`mh alnabpsStbm t]cnepw kvt\ln¡ppshn Cu alZvKpWÄ apgph ]cn]qÀambn ktfn Hcp hyn kvt\ln\pw {]Xn]n¡pw Gähpw AÀl Xs''(in^m 2:24þ25).

 

GsXmcp ]cnjvIÀmhns\ kw_ÔnnStmfhpw Akm[yamb Hcp hnhamWp \_n(kz) km[nXv. {]hmNIcpsS {]Ya kwt_m[nXcmb Ad_nIfpsS ZpchØbpw ]X\hpw AXn\p aXnbmb sXfnhmWv. AXntesd Zb\obambncpp tdmam t]Àjy km{amPyfpsSbpw bqtdmnsbpw ØnXn. Fv. Pn. shÂkns hcnIÄ Ipdn¡s. ""ss_kmnb km{amPyhpw t]Àjy km{amPyhpw \ioIcW t]mcmfnembncpp. CybmIs XZhkcw On{ZXbnepw ZpØnXnbnepambncpp'' (A Short History of the World P. 144). (kodx \_hn¿x \Zvhn: 35).

 

bqtdmns ]X\w tdm_Àv {_nt^mÄns hcnIfn \np {Kln¡mw. "Amw \qämp apX ]mw \qämp hsc bqtdmnepS\ofw Xtamcm{Xn hym]nncpp. Cu cm{XnbpsS XaÊv A\pZn\w hÀnp sImncn¡pIbmbncpp. A¡mes arKobX ]pcmX\ bpKfnse arKobXtb¡mÄ `oIchpw Adphjf\pambncpp. (The Making of Humanity P. 164).(kodx \_hn¿x \Zvhn: 33).

 

\mKcnI temIw apgph A¡mev \mi h{nsenbncppshmWv sP.Fv sU\n\ ]dbpXv. ""{In: Av, Bdv \qämpIfn \mKcnI temIw apgph AcmPIXznsbpw\minsbpw hmbbnsen¡gnªncpp. \membncw hÀjfmbnp hfÀp h \mKcnIX AÀm\w sN¿mdmsbp, ImWphÀs¡m s¡ tXmpambncpp. a\pjy hopw arKobXbnte¡pw {]mIrXXznte¡pw aSpIbmbncpp. B arKobXbn tKm{XÄ ]ckv]cw Igpdp¡pIbpw hÀÄ¡pw hn`mKÄ¡panSbn bpw BfnScpIbpambncpp. XZzmcm kam[m\w \ntÈjw \jvSsncpp. (Emotion as the basis of civilization P 265). (A _Avkp Ckveman)

 

Cu XeXncnª temIns KXn¡p amäw hcpn Hcp hntizmc kapZmbs hmÀsSp¡pI km[yambncpnÃ. ]t, aplZv apkvX^m(kz) AÃmlphns klmbtmsS CXp km[nXam¡n. {]kn {^v kmlnXyImc\mb emaÀn (17901869 \_n Xncpta\n(kz)bpsS \ncp]aamb hnPbn\p apn \{ainckvI\mIpXp ImWpI: ""C{Xbpw atlmXamb Hcp eyn\mbn Hcp a\pjy\pw Cdnncn Ncn{XanÃ. ImcWw Cu eyw a\pjyIgnhnXoXambncpp.a\pjysbpw Ahs {kjvSmhnsbpw CSbv¡p krjvSn¡s anYym`nnIÄ XIÀ¡pIbpw a\pjys\ ssI]nSnv Ahs \mYs ]SnhmXp¡te¡m\bn¡pIbpw DÖzehpw kwiphpamb GIssZh knmw, kÀÆ hym]Iamb hn{Klmcm[\bpsSbpw `uXnI ssZhfpsSbpw ImÀtaLmcon bmYmÀYyam¡pIbpw sN¿pIbmbncpp B ]ctamX eyw. sNdpXpw \nÊmchpamb am[yafpambn CÆn[w ZpÀhlhpw Fm AXn{][m\hpw AXypZmhpamb DchmZnw asämcp a\pjy\pw GsäSp kw`hapmbnnÃ'' (Histore de la Turquie 2/276, Islam in the world: P1516 ) (kodx \_hn¿: \Zvhn 51).

 

C¡mcWw sImp XsbmWv Ccp\qdp hÀjÄ¡p apv tXmakv ImÀsse kIe {]hmNImcpsSbpw Iqn \nv aplZv \_n(kz)sb Gähpw henb Ncn{X ]pcpj\mbn XncsªSpXv. Ccp]Xmw \qämns Ayn ssa¡Â Fv lmÀv, Ncn{Xn Gähpw kzm[o\w sNepnb \qdp almmcpsS Ncn{X ]nIbpÄsImÅnv The hundred F {KÙsagpXnbtmÄ aplZv(kz)bv¡p {]Ya Øm\w \ÂInbXns ImcWhpw asämÃ.

 

hnizhntamNI\mb {]hmNI intcmaWnsb kvt\ln¡m temIw apgph ISsncn¡pp. ""kIe temIn\pw A\p{Klambnpam{XamWp Xmsf \mw \ntbmKnnpÅXv'' FmWp JpÀBs {]kvXmhw. Cu bmYmÀYyw Adntªm AdnbmsXtbm kXn¡m k\Êp ImWn Ncn{XImcmcn Hcmfmb tPm hneyw {UmÀ (Jonhn William Draper) ]dbpp. "" PÌo\nb (Justinian) ImeKXn {]m]nv \mep hÀjÄ¡p tijw, {In. 569  Atd_y D]Zzo]nse Hcp ]Wamb a¡bn alm P\np. Atln\p, a\pjy hÀn apgph kzm[o\w sNepm km[np. aplZv \_nbn ktfn aZvlvKpWÄ kapZmbfpsSbpw hÀfpsSbpw cmPyfpsSbpw `cWIqSfpsSbpw KXnIÄ¡p amäw hcppIbpmbn (A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe 1:229).

 

Hcp a\pjys {]Yahpw ]cahpamb kvt\lw Ahs {kjvSmhmb AÃmlpthmSmbncn¡Ww. AXpsImp Xs cmas kvt\lw AÃmlphns {]hmNIcmb Xncp\_ntbmSmbncn¡Ww. AYhm krjvSnIfn Gähpw henb kvt\lw {]hmNIt\mSv. Cu kvt\lw kXyhnizmkns auenILSIamWv. ""]dbpI: \nfpsS ]nXm¡fpw ]p{Xmcpw ktlmZcfpw CWIfpw \nfpsS IpSpw_fpw \nÄ kmZn kp¡fpw \nÄ amyw `bsSp IhSc¡pIfpw \nÄ CjvSs `h\fpamWv AÃmlpsh¡mfpw Ahs dkqens\¡mfpw Ahs amÀn [Àakacw \SpXns\¡mfpw \nÄ¡p {]nbcsan AÃmlp Ah s IÂ\ \Sn hcppXp hsc \nÄ Imncn¡pI. AXn{IanIfmb P\Xsb AÃmlp kmÀnem¡pIbnà (hnip JpÀB 9:24).

 

Xs km\Ä, amXm]nXm¡Ä, aäp P\Ä ChscÃmhsc¡mfpw Fs kvt\ ln¡pXphsc Hcmfpw kXyhnizmknbmhpIbnsà \_n(kz)bpsS {]kvXmh\ kp{]knamWv. DaÀ ^mdqJv(d) Hcn¡Â \_n(kz)tbmSv C{]Imcw ]dªp. ""AÃmlphmsW, Rm Asb, Fs icocnse BßmshmgnpÅ asäÃm hkvXp¡sf¡mfpw {]nbc\m¡pp''. AtmÄ \_n(kz) ]dªp; kzw Bßmhns\¡mfpw Rm X\n¡p {]nbc\mIpXv hsc Hcmfpw kXyhnizmknbmhpIbnÃ''. DSs\ DaÀ(d) Cs\ {]XnIcnp: "Abv¡p hnip {KÙw AhXcnnh Xs kXyw, Fs icocnse Bßmhns\¡mfpw Av F\n¡p {]nbc\mWv'. DSs\ AhnSpv {]XnhNnp: ""Datd CtmÄ.......''(_pJmcn). Hcn¡Â HcmÄ \_n (kz)sb kao]np tNmZnp: "AyZn\w FtmgmWv?' "\o AXn\mbn Fp X¿mÀ sNbvXnpv?' Fmbncpp {]hmNIcpsS {]XnIcWw. Atlw ]dªp: "AXn\mbn Rm IqSpX \nkv¡mchpw t\mpw kzZJbpw X¿mÀ sNbvXnnÃ. ]t, Rm AÃmlpshbpw dkqens\bpw kvt\ln¡pp'. AhnSpv ]dªp: ""\o kvt\lnhtcmsSmw Xs''.

 

AÃmlpshbpw dkqens\bpw Gähpw A[nIw kvt\ln¡Wsapw AXv Cuam\ns A\nhmcyLSIamsWpw kvt\lw Gähpw Daamb Hcp C_mZmsW pw \mw a\Ênem¡n. Fm FmWp kvt\lns eWw. CXp kw_Ôambn AÃmam; Jmfn Cbmfv(d) \ÂInb hniZoIcWw Cs\ kw{Kln¡mw. ""HcmÄ asämcmsf kvt\lnm Ah\p apKW\ \ÂIpp. Aht\mSp tbmPnp {]ISnn¡pp. CsÃn Ahs kvt\lhmZw anYybmbncn¡pw. {]hmNI kvt\lhpw XssYh. ""HcmÄ {]hmNIs\ kvt\ln¡ppshp ]dªmÂ, AXn kXyhpw BßmÀYXbpapsn B kvt\lns eWw Ah\n {]ISamIpw. {]hmNI kvt\lns {]Ya eWw A\pkcWhpw A\pIcWhpamWv. hnip JpÀB ]dbpp: ""Hm \_o, ]dbpI. \nÄ AÃmlpsh kvt\ln¡ppshn Fs A\pKan¡pI. Fn AÃmlp \nsf kvt\ln¡pw''.

 

AtmÄ \_nNcy PohnXn ]IÀWw. at\mhm¡Àafn \_n(kz)sb A\pIcn¡Ww. AXmWp kvt\lns {]Yahpw {][m\hpamb eWw. \_n Xncpta\n(kz) A\kp_v\p amenIv(d) F injy\p \ÂInb Hcp]tZiw ImWpI: ""IpªpaIt\, \ns a\Ên HcmtfmSpw Akqbbpw ]IbpanÃmsX {]`mXsbpw {]tZmjsbpw A`napJoIcn¡m {ian¡pI. IpªpaIt\ AXv Fs Ncybn s]XmWv. Fs Ncy hÃh\pw Pohnnm Ah Fs kvt\lnp. Fs Bscnepw kvt\lnm Ah FtmsSmw kzÀnembn.

 

{]hmNI kvt\lns {][m\ eWfn aäp NneXp IqSn ]dbmw.(1)\_n (kz)sb AÀlamb hn[w _lpam\n¡pI. \_n(kz)bpsS t]cp tIÄ¡ptmÄ _lpam\hpw hn\bhpw {]ISnnp sImv kzemv sNmÃpI.(2) \_n(kz)sb IqSpXembn {]iwkn¡pI. (3) ImWm D¡Samb B{Klw {]ISnn¡pI. (4) \_n (kz) kvt\lnhsc kvt\ln¡pIbpw Ahsc shdp¡phsc shdp¡pIbpw sN¿pI. (5) \_n(kz)tbmSp i{XpX ]peÀphtcmSp shdpp {]ISnn¡pI. (6) _nZvApImsc _lnjvIcn¡pI. (7) icoAn\p hncpamb GsXmcp ImcytmSpw A\njvSw {]ISnn¡pI. (8) JpÀBt\mSp kvt\lw {]ISnn¡pIbpw AXp ]mcmbWw sN¿pIbpw Bibw {Klnp {]mhÀnIam¡pIbpw sN¿pI. (9) \_n(kz)bpsS A\pbmbnItfmSp Iqdpw ImcpWyhpw ImWn¡pIbpw AhcpsS cbv¡pw KpWn\pw thn bXv\n¡pIbpw sN¿pI. (10) sFlnI hncnbpw Zcn{ZPohnXhpw XncsªSp¡pI.

""]ÀÆXn\p apIfn \np Xmgvhcbnte¡p shÅw HgpIp io{LXbn Fs kvt\ln¡phcnte¡p Zmcn{Zyw HgpInhcpsav'' \_n(kz) A_qkCuZn JpZvcn (d)tbmSp ]dbpIbpmbn. HcmÄ, ""AÃmlphns {]hmNItc, Asb Rm kvt\ln¡pp'' Fp ]dªtmÄ ""]dbp Imcyw {im]qÀÆw Nnn¡q'' Fv AhnSpv ]dªp. XZhkcw BWbnp aqp XhW BhÀnv AbmÄ ]dªp: "Rm Asb kvt\ln¡pI Xs sN¿pp'. Xncpta\n(kz) ]dªp: ""\o Fs kvt\ln¡ppshn Zmcn{Zys XcWw sN¿m abpsS Hcp cmIhNw Xs X¿mÀ sN¿pI''.

alm\mb klveppkvXcn(d) ]dbpp: ""AÃmlpthmSpÅ kvt\lns e Ww JpÀBt\mSpÅ kvt\lamWv. JpÀBs\ kvt\ln¡ppshXns ASbmfw \_n(kz)sb kvt\ln¡pIbmWv. AXns sXfnhv \_nNcysb kvt\ln¡pIbmWv. AXns NnÓw ]ctemIkvt\lamWv. AXns eWw `uXnI temItmSpÅ AXr]vXnbmWv. AXns ASbmfw PohnX bm{Xbv¡mhiyamb kÖoIcWÄ AÃmsX asämpw kw`cnp kqn¡mXncn¡pIbmWv''(in^m 2:22).

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