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Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jeelani


                                       Quthubul Aqthab Sheikh Abdul Qadir al-Jeelani bin Abu Salih Moosa Jangidost the Persian is an unequalled and unrivalled preacher, and the founder of the Qadiri sufi order. His great and unequal contribution to Islam and Muslims earned him the title Muhiyiddin ("The reviver of the faith"), as he along with his students and associates laid the groundwork for the revival of Islam. His sufi order named after him is generally thought to be the oldest and first of such orders. He was born in late Sha’aban or early Ramadan on 1077 A.D. (470 A.H.) in ‘Niff’ a small town of Iranian Province of Geelan. Due to the Persian "G" does not exist in Literary Arabic, Geelani has also been recorded as Keelani and Jeelani in Arabic manuscripts. Jeelan is a district of the state ‘Thabristhan’, situating in the west of Tahran the capital of modern Iran and this province is situated in the Caspian Sea shore. Though taking birth in Iran, sheikh Jeeani spent the lion share of his life time in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq.


During AH 20-22, Hudaifathu bin Al Yamani (May Allah please with him) took a military action throughout the countries of Persia. Mean while this action, the Jeelan provinces came under the Islamic rule. The Jeelan has been Conquered after capturing the states including ‘Nahavandh’ (the modern Tahran), Azerbaijan, Zanjan, Qazvin and so on. Although the province Jeelan unexpectedly moved off from the hands of Islamic rulers for a short span, the resourceful captain Saeed bin al – Musayyab (May Allah please with him) re-conquered it.
All historians unanimously confirmed the death time of Jeelani as Hijri 561(AD 1165) and many of them have reported his birth year as 470 H (AD 1077). Dr. Abdul Razaq Keelani, a modern research scholar reveals that it is more possible that the birth of sheikh must be on 471 Hijri as Ibn al Jouzi, the contemporary of Sheikh, recorded. Moreover, this same year can be seen in most of our Moulid books also. During the birth time of Jeelani, the leadership of Islamic rule was upon the ‘Salajooqi Sulthans’. It was the famous sultan ‘Mulk shah’ was the emperor of those days and the famous ‘Nidamul Mulk’ was the minister.
Family background
Aboo Salih Moosa Janeedosth (May Allah Mercy upon him) was his father and respected guide. The word ‘Jangeedosth’ is not an Arabic one. It is combination of ‘Jang’(war) and Dosth (lover). His father is known in the name of Jangidosth (war maker) (Qala-idul Jawahir Page 3). Besides, it can be seen ‘Khandakkoos’ in addition to ‘Jangidosth’ in some places. It is beyond doubt that this change is a fault or misunderstanding and we cannot find out this name any where in the linage of Sheikh’s family. The paternal linage of Sheikh reaches to the Prophet (PBH) as follows: (1) Father : Sayyid Abu Salih Moosa Jangi dosth (2) Sayyid Abu Abdullah (3) Sayyid Yahya Zahid (4) Sayyid Muhammad(5) Sayyid Davood (6) Sayyid Moosa (7) Sayyid Abdullah (8) Sayyid Moosa al-joun (9) Sayyid Abdullah al- mahd (10) Sayyid Hasanul Muthanna (11) Sayyid Hasan (12) Sayyid Ali (13) Sayyidath Fathima (14) Prophet Muhammad (PBH) (Qalaid Page 03). It is the special veneration of Prophet (PBH) that the linage touching to the Messenger will be get through the children of his daughter Fathima (Nihaya 6/177). According to the linage, Sheikh’s parents will link to the prophet (PBH) through Hazrath Fathima (May Allah please with her).
‘Ummul Khair Fathima is the mother of Jeelani and his linage through maternal Fathers join to the Messenger (Peace and Blessing of Allah be upon him) through Husain bin Ali(May Allah please with them) as follows: - (1) His mother Fathima (2) Adbullah Assoumaie(3) Abu Jamaluddin Muhammad (4) Mahmood, (5) Abul Athau Abdullah (6) Kamaluddin Isa (7) Abu Alauddin Muhammad Al Jawad(8) Ali Rida (9) Moosa Al qazi (10) Ja’far sadiq (11) Muhammad baqir (12) Zainul Abideen (13) Abu Abdullah Al Husain (14) Ali bin Abu thalib (15) Fathima (16) Muhammad (Peace and Blessing of Allah be upon them) (Futhuhul Qhoib 133-134).
Sheikh Yonus Samraee narrates that the paternal linage of Sheikh Jeelani reaches through the venerable Caliphs ‘Abu Baker Siddiq and Umar Al Farooq (May Allah please with them) to the Messenger (PBH).
Some historians have recorded that “his mother, Fathima gave birth to the Sheikh while she was 60 years old woman. After some years of his birth, father breathed his last. Sheikh Jeelani, the orphan spent his infantile stage with his mother and maternal father, great pious, Sayyid Abdullah Al- masa’ee. They looked after him carefully.
They called him ‘Abdul Qadir’ (Slave of omnipotent) as getting direction to call so, in their dreams. In due course, he got different kinds of names concerning his charismatic personality and virtuous deeds. The name Muhyiddin (The reviver of the religion) is the famous among his names. Some call him Sheikh Jeelani too relating him to his birth place.
The well known personalities among Jeelani’s children are Sheikh Abdul wahhab, Sheikh Abdul Razaq, Sheikh Abdul Azez, Sheikh Abdul Jabbar, Sheikh Abdul Ghafoor, Sheikh Abdul Ghanillah, Sheikh Salih, Sheikh Muhammad, Sheikh Moosa, Sheikh Isa, Sheikh Ibrahim, Sheikh Yahya and Fathima. (Fhthuhul Ghoib 125).
Body language
The sheikh Muvaffaquddin bin bin khudham almaqdhasi (May Allah Mercy upon him) describes that Sheikh jeelani was  most handsome man with brown color, keen, a moderate height, a broad chest and dense beard(Khalaid al Jawahir Page 6). Astonishing the world with different extra ordinaries, the Sheikh grew in jeelan. His mother Fathima says: when he was an infant of suckling, Sheikh jeelani abstained from suckling during the day time of Ramadan. In a year, people couldn’t see the crescent moon of Ramadan. Then they all came to me and sought about the suckling of baby Muhyiddin. I said to them that the baby did not suckle even a drop. Subsequently, they made out that the day, on which the baby did not suckle, was Ramadan (Khalaidul Jawahir).
During his childhood itself, Sheikh jeelani expressed his extreme interest and strived every nerve to seek the knowledge. Sheikh Muhammad bin Qaid al-avani has narrated the inspiration behind sheikh’s learning, his trustworthiness and the advantages while seeking the knowledge. Sheikh Jeelani says: when I was a child, in Arafa day I was ploughing the field with my buffalos. Then amazingly enough, the buffalos turned to me their face and told me, oh Abdul Qadir! You must not be created for this ploughing. Soon after, I returned to homewards. Frightened at this incident, I turned back to his house and climbed its roof. Amazingly , I saw vast assembly standing on Jabl-ul Arafat.
I then requested my mother to dedicate me to Allah and also allow me to proceed to Baghdad, which was then famous in the Muslim World as a great seat of learning for the acquisition of knowledge. The desire to acquire knowledge was intensely burning in my heart.
When my mother heard the proposal, she shed silent tears as she perceived that on account of her old age, she was not destined to see her dear son again, whom she had brought up so carefully and tenderly, after the death of my father long age. But the Saintly mother would not stand in the way of my devotion of Allah.
She sewed forth Dinars (Gold Coins) into my garment, so that they might not easily be lost. It was my half share of the money left by my father. The other half was kept for my brother. I soon joined a small caravan, which was going to Baghdad.
My mother at the time of parting took a vow from me that I should not tell even one lie under any circumstances. We then parted with heavy hearts. The separation between the son and the mother was pathetic and sublime. It was no less similar to that of the leading of Prophet Ismail by his father, Prophet Ibrahim (May Allah Peace with them) for sacrifice under divine orders, as the separation in either case was not for wealth, rank or fame, but for the sake of Allah.
The caravan passed quite safely as far as Hamadan, but beyond that place, a gang of sixty robbers fell upon the caravan and plundered it, but none laid violent hands upon me, taking me to be a penniless, religious youth. One robber however, questioned me whether I had anything with me. I readily said I had forty Dinars sewed into my garment. The man took it as a joke and went away. Another robber also asked the same question from me, and on receiving the same reply, moved off. They reported the incident to the leader of the gang, who ordered the production of the youth before him. Accordingly, when I was taken before the gang leader, I said the same thing, which I had stated before. The garment was then cut open and the forty Dinars were found.
On seeing the "dinars", the leader was astounded. He asked me what had made me to tell the truth. I replied that I had promised my mother not to tell a lie under any circumstances. I added that if I had told a lie on the very first stage of my journey undertaken for the sake of acquiring knowledge of religion, I would obviously have no chance of acquiring any real knowledge of religion at subsequent stages of my career. Upon this, the robber realizing the felonious life he and his companions had led, burst into tears and said that he had been breaking the commands of God throughout his life, while a youth was so conscientiously fulfilling his vow made to his mother.
By placing his hands upon my hands, the leader of the robbers solemnly vowed to give up robbery. The other robbers also followed their leader and repented. The robbed belongings were returned to their owners (Khalidul Jawahir).
Primarily, the Sheik earned knowledge in holy Qur’an. Then he acquired almost his deepest knowledge in Jurisprudence and its branches prominently from Abul vafa Ali bin Aqeel, Abdul khathab mahfud Al- kalvadani, Abul hasan Muhammad bin Qadhi Abu Ya’la Muhammad and Al Qadhi Abu Saeed (May Allah Mercy upon them). But the number of scholars who taught him Hadiths is beyond the measure. The famous and reputed personalities from those scholars are Abu Ghalib Muhammad bin Hasan Al – Baqillani, Abu Saeed Muhammad bin Abdul kareem, Muhammad bin Muhammad, Abu backer Ahmed bin Mudaffar, Abu Jafar bin Ahmed, Abul Qasim Ali bin Ahmad, Abdul Qadir bin Muhammad, Abdul Rahman bin Ahmed and Abul Barakath Hibathullah (May Allah Mercy upon him). Making acquaintance with Sheik Abul Khair Ahmad bin Muslim, he bagged the deep knowledge in Thareeqath and reached on the apex of fame and popularity (Qalaidul Javahir 4).
His well known works
Some of Jilani's more well known works include (1)Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of   Truth and Religion) (2) Al-Fath ar-Rabbani (The Sublime Revelation) (3) Malfuzat (Utterances) (4) Futuh al-Ghaib (Revelations of the Unseen) (5)Jala' al-Khatir (The Removal of Care).
Chain to the Prophet
Sheik Jeelani links to the Messenger (Peace and Blessing of Allah be upon him) through the following chain of scholars: Sheik Muhammad Abdul Kadir, Al Qadhi Abu Saeed Al- Mubarak Al-Mukarramillah, Sheik Abu Al-hasan Ali bin Muhammed Al Qurashi, Abul Faraj Al -Tharasoosi, Abul fadl Abdul Vahid Al- thameemi, Shaik Aboobakar Al Sshibly, Sheik Abu qasim Al-Junaid, Sariyy Al-Sakhthi, Ma’roof Al- Karkhi, Davod Al -Thai, Habeeb Al- Ajari, Hasan Al- Basari, Ali bin Abu Thalib (May Allah Mercy upon them) and the Messenger (PBH).  (Qalaidul Javahir: 4).
Journey to Baghdad
In AH 483, Sheik Abdul Qadir Jeelani was a matured boy of 18 year old. Getting inspiration from immaterial touching, he got ready to set out his journey to conquer the world of knowledge. During the era, Baghdad was the capital city of Muslim community at many respects. Moreover the city was blessed with a plenty of Sufis, intellectuals, scholars and pious empires and the people were satisfied with any thing they need on the peaceful age. 
While the Sheik (May Allah Mercy upon him) entered to Baghdad, many scholars adorned the spiritual stage of Baghdad. It was on the year, the sparkling light house of spiritual Baghdad and the well known scholar Abul Fadl Abdul Vahid Al Thameemi (May Allah Mercy upon him) bid fare well to the material life. Besides, it was also in the same year; Hujjathul Islam Abu Hamid Al Gazzali (May Allah Mercy upon him) abstained from his entangling life with the public and sought shelter under the consoling wings of spirituality. Really his abstain was from the chief position of Nizamiya the famous University running under the rulers of Baghdad. Before his withdrawal, he handed over his position to his brother Imam Ahmad Al Gazzali (May Allah Mercy upon him) the great scholar.   
Soon after entering to Baghdad, Sheik Jeelani (May Allah Mercy upon him) approached the well known scholars and genius spiritual teachers. It was Al Qadhi Abu Saeed Al Mubarak Al Mukarrami (May Allah Mercy upon him) who was his prominent teacher and guide to success path.  The Sheik (May Allah Mercy upon him) undertook the educational and spiritual center of his teacher respecting his humble request. Giving knowledge and meaningful advices by this center, he spent the remaining part of his life time.  Here the Sheik showed a number of extra ordinary actions. With in a short span of time, the educational centre of Sheik (May Allah Mercy upon him) was congested with different types of people. Being feeble to control the people, he came out from the center and started to spread his messages through out the streets of Baghdad. With help of rich people and the volunteering minds of pious poor, his educational center expanded in to an unbelievable level.  It was AH 528 that the expansion process completed. Here, he indulged in teaching, advising and doing the deeds for the betterment of hear after the world.  Scholars and pious flowed into his presence for getting his blessings.  Moreover numerous scholars came out from his presence as leading scholars. Sheik Abu Amr Utman bin Marzooq (May Allah Mercy upon him) was a reputed scholar among his prominent students (Kaleedul Javahir 3, 5).
Almost evil doers in Baghdad came before Sheik Jeelani (May Allah Mercy upon him) and repented from all their miscreant deeds rolling tears through their cheeks. Understanding the truthfulness of Sheik’s words, many of Jews and Christians came under the ever protected shelter of Islam. Standing on stages, Sheik Jeelani (May Allah Mercy upon him) used to proclaim the truthful words and roar against the evil doings.  Besides, the Sheik (May Allah Mercy upon him) never allows the rulers to give official positions for the evil doers (Qalaidul Javahir: 6).
Sheik Ahmad al Kabeer ar Rifaee (May Allah Mercy upon him) says that “no one can count the entire peculiarities of sheik Jeelani (May Allah Mercy upon him).  Has there any one today who reached the position of Sheik (May Allah Mercy upon him)? He could figure out the ‘Haqeeqath’ and ‘Thareeqath’ at its reel manner” (Thareekathul Auliya: 100).
Sheik Abdul Kadir Jeelani (May Allah Mercy upon him) succeeded in showing a perfect life style, commanding virtuous, preventing malicious deeds and avoiding this material world instead of hear after the word. The study classes conducted by Sheik’s institution became beneficial to all types of people. Moreover, the Sheik (May Allah Mercy upon him) was the leader of all Sheiks and a man of cautious in all doings. (Al Bidayathu Vannihaya: 12/252).  The devil strived every nerve to make the Sheik astray but he succeeded in overcoming all the vulgar chartings of devils.   

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bullet The Jeelani Day  
bullet The vision of Jeelani  
bullet Sheik Jeelani: life and message  
bullet The last moments of Sheikh Jeelani  
bullet The Sheikh's Names and Titles  
bullet A Door to Spiritual Vision